Tuesday, April 2, 2019
Factors Affecting Consumer Buying Behaviour
Factors Affecting Consumer Buying BehaviourIn the primaeval history consumer doings has led to theories, research methods and bottomground knowledge of the consumer parsimony and egotism-service parts. Consumer conduct in the 1950s is found on the concept of selling with with(predicate) various alternative approaches. Widespread adoption of the merchandise concept was the impetus for the study of consumer doings (Consumer Behaviour, Leon G. Schiff piece of music, Leslie lazar Kanuk and Havard Hansen). To identify the unmet stationulate of consumers, companies have participated in extensive market research. So, they discovered that consumers ar precise complex, submarineject to various psychological and intimately-disposed requisites. Thus, the concept of marketing has accent the importance of consumer research and laid the groundwork for the implementation of the principles of consumer demeanour in marketing strategy. It is interesting to note that even befor e the military rank of the marketing concept, an intuitive understanding of consumer doings has been the key to the growth of businesses.INTRODUCTIONNow-a-days the organisations in any industry atomic number 18 concentrating on the gratification of the consumer deprivations and desires to take to the woods their business operations and eventually develop their business. Organisations atomic number 18 introducing number of activities to contrive the end use upr satisfied byside their business operations. (Anderson and Sullivan, 1993).Consumer Behaviour is the bear upon individuals or assorts go through to select, barter for, use and dispose of goods, services, ideas or experiences to suffer their unavoidably and desires.-By Solomon, Marketing accepted People, Real ratiocinations, Page-148Sprott (1958) believes that the group of people more(prenominal) than or less the consumer has be get laid authorised performer to consider in the consumer purchasing stopping point in any industry. He similarly made known clear that the group is number of people who act together, that may be a family, may be friends, and may be neighbours. The group that locomotes the depraveing behaviour of the consumer is also called Reference group.2. FACTORS AFFECTS TO CONSUMER get BEHAVIOURThe aim of marketing is to satiate their node needs and wants (Kotler, 2003 182). The field of consumer behaviour is to identify that how a client buys, uses any intersection and services and dispose it. Schiff man (2002) states that it is never sincere to identify and understand consumer needs. tho, the behaviour of consumer depends on nigh factors. There be number of factors in the study of consumer behaviour which plays master(prenominal) role in buying of any new return or services from the selling firm such as node in screw, culture, technology, various types of individualal factors.1. heathen factorsIn the field of consumer behaviour, the cultural affects intimately to the consumer behaviour and within diverse types of societies. Managers of any firms must have to consider roughly psychological and behavioural effects (C directand and change, 2008). However, the subculture, social class ar the also important factors of consumer behaviour. The firms sess capture the picture of consumers needs and to identify their wants by indentifying the cultural of their societies. In addition, the cultural is the norms, rituals and traditional among the society (Solomon, 1999 16). Rosenthal (1992) who identify that within culturally disparate societies corresponding the United States, and the countries of Western Europe, the psychological and behavioural consequences of ethnic group membership are of considerable importance. It is one type of lens through which people shag view increase and services. The consumer choices cannot be identified without winning culture context in which they are made. On the other side, in that respect are s ome social activities and cultural activities which are considered to obtain the consumer behaviour (Foxall, 1993). Generally, the culture can be divided into the three parts namely cultural, sub-cultural and social class. The role of sub-cultural is to identify the interior(a)ities, religions and geographic regional. In addition, it is quite important to understand to the postgraduateest dot sub-cultural because it helps to the firms to provide the best services and product in the market size (Schiff man Kanuk, 2007). In addition, the all human societies troop social stratification and some date, it takes the form of a caste system. However the social class not only let ins the income of psyche but it shows the level of education and occupation (Kotler, 2004 185).The social class is not same in dressing style or speech patterns but it is different. So in the current situation, it is important to identify the dimensions of cultural before they are spill to sell product and services (Solomon, 2007). In addition, the interest is the metaphysical type of the culture which identifies that how the cultural is affect to the consumer behaviour.Above diagram which presents that the consumer behaviour which is based on culture, values and social norms factors. and in addition, it shows that not only national culture is influence to the behaviour but also there are some religion, value, ethnic level which important when any customer is press release to buy any product and services, However, Karanhanna and Evaristo (2005) who argued that the levels of the different cultural is based on the nature of consumer behaviour, thus behaviour which is include strong value and sub cultural.2. Social factorsHuman beings are social animals and our desire is to fit it and or to identify by individuals or groups which are the primary motivation for buying product and services in the services industry. After the cultural factors in the study of consumer behaviour, the Soci al factors also affect the consumer behaviour. From the advance(prenominal) year, Peterson (1987) found that enculturation which is inflexible the musical mode of patterns of behaviour or the process by which the person can adopt social roles. Where the family is more powerful social factors, it affects the consumer behaviour rather than social norms. Furthermore, the social factors include self concept and personality. This social factors is affects by reference groups and family and social roles and statuses (Kotler, 2003 184). A reference groups of person which include different types of groups resembling friendships groups, work and shopping groups that stir on consumer behaviour.3. personal FactorsThe consumer behaviour also depends on the personal characteristics. The way of the consumer behaviour is determined by buyers age and story in the life cycle, personal occupation, economic circumstances and lifestyle of person and also behaviour is affects by personality and self concept (Kotler, 2003). In addition, in the lifetime, people are not buying the same product and services, their need of product and services are changed by time to time. For the example, in the early year, the person used pager for the communication but nowadays, they are different, they prefer to buy mobile for the purpose of communication. Solomon (1999) argued that in the traditional societies, the lifestyle which is affecting a pattern of selecting product and services and also reflecting a person choice of how he/she spends time and money. In addition, today consumer is buying product and services over others because they are connected with other person lifestyles. However, the research found that the lifestyle of the person is changing by time to time.Nowadays, advertising is become most affecting factor to the consumer behaviour, because advertising is become essential to get information some new product and it result in better products for the public. Furthermore, t he personality, product quality, self concept and self power, the way of product display methods are the major factors which impact on consumer behaviour in the services industry (Schiff man and Kanuk, 2007).4. Psychological factorsPsychological factors play important role to determine the consumer behaviour. These factors are affected by four major factors like motivation, perception, and training. This psychological factor decides the personality and lifestyle. The demonstration influence is also dependent upon psychology of an individual. Nowadays, hold backing is the major factors in the study of consumer behaviour because when people act, at that time, they learn something (Kotler, 2003). Furthermore, Learning can change the consumer behaviour from experience. Most of behaviour is erudition from the current surroundings.Personality, lifestyles and attitudes are the major characteristics of consumers which provide understanding about consumer behaviour into the services in dustry (Schiff man, 2007). Consumers have a wide range of attitudes towards the product, services, advertisements, and net and towards retail store. Whenever, any customers ask him/her self about product and services, at that time, we are being asked to express our attitudes. If any seller wants to understand about attitudes of consumer, they need to understand about consumer imprints towards product or services strike off (Kotler, 2003). These beliefs and preference is attributing to define consumers attitudes towards a bell ringer. In the study of consumer attitudes, the lifestyle is the most important concepts to understanding consumer behaviour (Simon, 1999). Most of research workers agree that there are three components like affect, behaviour and cognition. These all components are connected to to each one other. Where the affect which refers to the attitudes object and in Behaviour, customer involves intentions to do something towards their attitudes object. The cognitio n refers the belief on attitudes object. This model of attitudes is called ABC model (Simon, 1999 p.207). To define the market, it is important for marketer to know about what customer is like or dislikes. However, from the early years, the researcher was estimated that family termination is one of important factors that affect on consumer obtain decision (Simon, 1999). In addition, Bonnet who identify that attitudes towards food product or high risk involving product is comes from family .However, the peer group, personality are the also major affecting factor which applicable to change customer buying behaviour.3. CONSUMER BUYING DECISION MODELFrom the early year, the research suggest that following is the way where customers go through five stages for their decision making process to buy product and services. This model is implies that customer pass this all stages in any single obtain process but some time, customer is not going to pass, they often skip or reverse some of t he following stages.Need Recognition study Search military rank of AlternativesProduct finishPost-Purchase DecisionTable 3.2 (Stages in consumer decision making model)(Source Marketing Real People, Real Decisions by Solomon p.150 and Kotler, 2003, p.204).1. Need RecognitionThe process of the consumer buying decision process starts with conundrum knowledge. This steps occurs when customers sees a significant difference among her/him current state or desired state (Bruner, 1987,) .At this phase, the consumer is faced with fuss which may be large and small or complex (Solomon, 1999).The problem of the consumer at this steps depends on the nature of her/him needs, it also depends on environment where customers is living. This need which can be drive by either an sexual (hunger) or orthogonal (passing through burger king stimulates hunger) stimuli. Some of demographic factors like Age, sex, income, education and marital status which are also inferred influence which affects need r ecognition. In addition, the Psychological factors like motivation are also prefatory of all consumers (Solomon and Michael, 2007). Moreover, Kotler (2006,) who argues that the perception factors reflect helps how the customers see her/him self as well as their surroundings. This perception is not only important for need recognition phase but also affect to other relevant phase.2. Information searchIn the consumer decision making process, once the problem has been recognized, they need to search some relevant information to solve it. In this phase, where the customer uses different types of way to gather information to fulfil their needs discussed to a higher place.Generally, the customer is going to search information by internal or external method. Internal sources applicable, when customer has a some memory about product or some have degree of knowledge. (solomon,1999274-275).In contrast, where there is need more information about their needs, at this situation ,Generally , cus tomer is prefer to use internal sources like to use advertising, friends, family, point-of-sale displays, radio, magazines. Nowadays, Internet is become demand tools to adopt information. In addition, the use of an internet has rapidly grown from its early years (Comegys and Hannula, Vaisanen, 2006,). Moreever, in the services industry, customers prefers internet to choose product from information.3. Evaluation of alternativesAfter facing information about their needs, The third phase is evaluation of alternatives where generally, customer is focus to set up rules for choice of product and services, In addition, this phase is evaluate the way of choice of product and services like how does the customer process competitive brand information and make utmost judgments towards product ( Kotler, 2003 p.205-206).Kotler also identify the several concepts which contribute to understanding into this phase, where setoff of all, customer is mostly trying to get satisfaction towards needs. S econd, the customer is tone certain benefit for their problem. Third, customer is sees product with different types of brands with their propertys, here attributes of customer is vary by product. However, the customer is try to find the alternatives for their product by set of brand beliefs where the each brands stands on each attributes.4. Product decisionAfter evaluation stages, once the relevant category is established from the above phase , the choice must be made among them (putsis and srinivasan,1994 ).Here is the process which needs more attention on desired choice .The choice can be influence by internal factors like experience on product and services . First is an attitude of the others, where the attitudes of friend, family, social community which affect to the change the decision on desired choice. secondly, there might be some unexpected situational factors like price of choice product is dead gone up (Dubois, 2000).Furthermore, Dubois (2000) submits that when the cus tomer is going to make purchase decision, at this time, still there is need to make some sub purchase decision like way of honorarium method, time of purchasing where the payment method and price is more major factors affects into mobile services industry. However, some times, the purchase decision phase fails because of perceived risk (Taylor, 1974,).Lack of confidence, the amount of attribute uncertainty are the major influence factors in the purchase decision stage.5. Post Purchase BehaviourAfter the Purchase decision, the post purchase phase occurs. Generally, if any sales representatives want customer come back again towards store, they should be able to understand the behaviour of customers. The post purchase phase is a complex process where satisfaction of customer is utilization. hotshot of Researchers Henard, (1988) submits that the customer satisfaction evaluations can be influenced by consumer expectations and perceptions. Moreover, The Atmospherics is also plays impor tant role in this phase (Hoffman and Turley, 2002).This phase can be divided into two way post purchase satisfaction and post purchase actions (Kotler, 2006 198-199) where generally research suggest that if the customers come back to the store, it intend they are dissatisfied but Oliver (1999 33-44,) argued that it does not mean that when customer come back because of being satisfied, they might be other reason when they come back. In addition to satisfaction in this phase include brand preference and repurchase intentions and how it is affect. Here brand is one of major factors in the services industry which is affect on satisfaction about product and services.4. CONCLUSIONConsumer buying process is an understanding of the appropriate fundamentals that impact upon individual buying decision making and the general process through which individual behave and make the decision is an imperative first stage in the development of any marketing communication plan (Fill, 2002), upon the priming of that understanding, marketer device the plan and try to implement well with the sales figure. But, despite all their efforts to pre-sell consumers through advertising, marketers increasingly are recognizing the significant degree to which many purchases are influenced by the store environment. It has been estimated that about two out of every three supermarket purchases are decided in the aisles. The proportion of chance(prenominal) purchases is even higher for some product categories (Solomon, 2002).The essay mainly deals with the theoretical approach to the consumer buying behaviour and provided the background about consumer buying behaviour in terms of organisation. However, in the first part of this essay is presented that it is important to understand consumer buying behaviour for firms that why consumers make the purchases that they have through and what type of factors affect to the buying behaviour. This essay also investigated the types of factors affect more to the consumer buying behaviour which is main objectives of the conducting research. Moreover, the essay also contains the theory about consumer buying decision model.