Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Labor Force from the rest home Survey - Essay ExampleU6 reflects the rate that includes persons marginally attached to the labor force and those who are apply part-time for economic reasons in generating the unemployment rate. Discouraged workers form part of the marginally attached workers. According to the authors, the important reason for the continuing stagnant growth of the U.S. economy lies in the ongoing and scarcely improving shortfall in aggregate affect relative to the supply of productive resources. (Bivens, Fieldhouse & Shierholz 2013) Consumption of formd goods and services have decreased since the onset of the Great Recession in 2008.2. The authors discuss the issue of the relationship between strong gross domestic product growth and a strong recovery. What does their argument suggest about the relationship between strong gross domestic product growth, the deficit and reducing unemployment? The authors argument suggests that budget deficit reduction results to dec elerated GDP, which, in turn, translates to higher unemployment and underemployment rates. The austerity measures utilise to reduce budget deficits lead to less economic activities, fewer jobs, less production of goods and services, less demand from the consumers, and, ultimately to a lower GDP. Lower GDP requires less labor. More and more plants and factories will manipulate below their full capacity and will lay off more workers to cut costs and give-up the ghost the economically difficult times. According to the authors, achieving full employment will bring in economic recovery. secure employment can be attained by boosting the consumers demand for goods and services produced by the country as the initial step toward narrowing the output gap the difference between what the economy can produce and its actual output.
Monday, April 29, 2019
Study the Impact of advertising on children ( all media) - Essay ExampleFor this reason, a number of governments have passed several legislations that are aimed at protecting children from round of the advertisers efforts to induce them into some of the products and go in the market.One of the most critical consideration is the idea that the development of commercial appeals on children was not a common thing until the exponential growth of widespread television adoption (Lawlor and Prothero, 2002). This growth allowed programmers to jazz up with some channels that exclusively air children programming as well as advertising. It is similarly possible to identify the fact that with the growth of the internet, advertisers have been able to develop children-oriented advertising. However, the internet is a to a greater extent privately controlled media. With the development of advertising content, that is specific to children this cover looks into some of the impacts that this kind o f advertising has had on children. The paper specifically looks into some of the cognitive developmental impacts of the advertising on children as well as the set up that such exposure has on the children.For any individual to obtain a mature understanding of some of the messages in advertisements, one of the most basic requirements is that the individual should be able to distinguish between noncommercial and commercial content. More specifically, the individual should be able to establish the difference between an advertisement and a program. According to some studies, young children might not be in a place to distinguish the difference between programming and commercials in a mature way (Lawlor and Prothero, 2002). For this reason, they base their judgment on affective or perpetual cues, which means that they are comfortable to watch commercials since they are shorter and funnier than programs. The other cognitive task involves a mature recognition of persuasive content in the commercials (Rozendaal et al, 2011). The comprehension of the advertisers intent
Sunday, April 28, 2019
Violating Company Social Networking Policy - Assignment ExampleNLRB ruled in choose of the employer because it is important that the activity should be concerted in order to provide relief to the employee in such(prenominal) cases. In this case, the employee was properly disciplined and therefore there was nonhing wrong in it, according to the sentiment and judgment of NLRB.I agree with the ending of NLRB because it is also important to protect the rights of the employer. There are guidelines which NLRB has to hook up with and in this case, they have followed the guidelines. NLRB makes sure that rights of employees are not violated and employment terms are such that use of social media activity against employer does not become grounds for termination (Belicove, 2012). But the social media activity should be concerted, meaning that the employee should take up the issue with other employees before posting something online regarding his or her employer. This was not done and ther efore this case was decided in favor of the employer. The decision was accurate because it was based on the laws and guidelines of NLRB and the termination of the employee was not legal because he did not talk about the issue with his fellow employees.The decision would not have been taking in a positive way in any face by the employees. Employees would feel that they were violated and employer got off because of a technical issue. The issue would have created many work-related problems and virtuous issues in any organization. Employees have a natural tendency to think positively regarding their fellow employees. as well because in this case the employee posted something that was very true and therefore sympathies of employee would always be with him. This would worsen the employee relations in any company and more and more of such cases would come up which will negatively affect employee productivity.
Saturday, April 27, 2019
The various dimension of globalization - query Paper ExampleIn some ways the world is becoming one large commercialise than a series of separate national markets. The same goods and services can be found in many countries throughout the world. globalisation is the term now widely used to quarter the increased worldwide competition between businesses. When investment, trade and cultural exchange happen internation solelyy between different countries of the world and therefore bring changes to society and global economy, we call it globalization. This term is most commonly used to describe the personal effects of international trade but applies to trade of all sorts of industries. Steger has defined globalization as a preparedness of social processes that appear to transform our present social condition of weakening nationality into one of globalism. It means to explicate that it is not one process but various processes that function at the same time and compensate haphazardly on different levels and in different dimensions.Global village is a terminology used to describe a new kind of globalization presenting us with an interconnected world and a global calm culture. globalization affects world economies, political situations, ecological dimensions and cultural identities. Globalization has led to more choice and scorn price for consumers. It has forced firms to look for ways of increasing efficiency. Inefficient producers have gone out of business. Globalization has a positive impact on almost everybody as it generally garters to creates greater economic value. Globalization is able to provide equal distribution of the added value. The process of globalization must focus on permit go of the economic self-interest by respecting different religious, environmental and cultural values for the gather of all classes of people. It must be beneficial for everybody by developing a global world outlook that boosts up the mutual and common values of all cultu res. Accumulated forms of communication create images that cross different linguistic boundaries more quickly and conveniently than many goods and services. This global mass culture has entered, influenced and revolutionized the lives of people in young societies. There are several reasons for this increasing global competition. Free trade agreements and economic unions have lessen protection for industries. Consumers can now purchase goods and services from other countries with no import controls. Improved fail links and communications between all parts of the world have made it easier to compare prices and qualities of goods from many countries. This has further developed as the internet has become more widely available worldwide. Business in every sector of the economy are now striving to enter the global market be it science, manufacturing or entertainment industry (Stimpson, 2006). The economic dimensions of globalization are mostly linked with economic result of global tra de and finance, economic order and multinational corporations and how they affect the formation and functioning of the international economy. It is a known fact that multinationals help in creating jobs and improving employment levels. By the year 2000, they accounted for nearly c million jobs created indirectly as researched by the New York Times newspaper of July 2000. It is known as the multiplier factor effect. When foreign direct investment comes in, both, the multinationals and domestic country become better-off. The company benefits from profits. Domestic country benefit in the form of jobs created, tax revenues generated and capital formation. The USA witnessed its lowest unemployment rate in 2000 in 30 years (Birdsall, Graham, 2005). Globalization helps in sustainable development. It provides the developing nations with much needed jobs and capital as easy as equal distribution of income and wealth and help developing countries to escape severe poverty levels. They help improve the education levels, life expectancy rates and infrastructure and future markets in the developing countr
Friday, April 26, 2019
(Micro economicals) - Assignment ExampleBut since increase in quantity produced raises marginal cost, producer of butter would raise its hurt to keep up with the increased marginal cost (to maximize profit). Thus, price begins to rise. Now, if the demand for butter drops, producer would cut their production and thus the marginal cost again decreases and they stinkpot lessen the price too because now the profit maximizing condition (MR = MC) can be convenient at the lower price. Question 3 In a perfectly emulous manufacture, economic gelt disappear in the long run because entry and exit of a firm is free of barriers which allows the tally of firms to remain up to the level of zero economic profits as opposed to an imperfectly completive industry where entry barriers prevent other firms from entering the industry and thus from exhausting the profits. For a perfectly competitive industry, economic profit attracts the new suppliers in the market as they can freely enter. New entr ies is keep until ATC = price. This is because if ATC price (positive profit), more firms will enter and thus absorb the profit and if ATC price, firms will shut follow through in long run (as exit is also free in perfect competition) to avoid the economic loss and thus price and ATC again becomes equal zero economic profit. Question 4 hypothecate the firm is a profit-maximizing firm.
Thursday, April 25, 2019
lodgement finance and economics - Coursework Example possessor-occupation and social renting had taken the place of cloak-and-dagger renting as people have money and option to deal avowership houses as well as topical anaesthetic authorities made construction for occupancy of public. It made drastic change in market. Other component was rent control system which impedes private landlord to invest further in real estate. Gradually private renting system reduced to a certain limit till 1980s. (Sherman 2008).But it was observed by experts that private renting system was necessary in emerging globalization. In 1980s Conservative company came into picture. Their aim was shift of house property stock from local authority to owner occupied authority. Owner occupied sector later had been modified as Registered social landlord. Many houses were transferred from local authority to Registered Social Landlord sector as a impart of arrival of Right to buy policy. These houses are maintained by non profit making landlords. These dwellings are later handed over to housing associations known as topical anaesthetic Housing Companies. Thus the system paved the way of low cost living houses. Right to buy and deregulation of mortgage finance encourage common people to incline to buy residence. In increment to this deteriorating condition of housing where they lived and decrease of subsidies result in higher rent which provoke people to own houses rather than rent a house. Top of this the residualisation was a considerable factor for social rented sector and on with this the poor image of social housing has drifted on this process. (Birchall 1992)During this period the socio economic and political factors have accelerate this residualisation. In the period of leadership of Margaret Thatcher Britain witnessed a great fall in macro economic factors exchangeable GDP, industrial output, investment. Most of bankruptcy of company and joblessness had taken place in that time. As a result Government cut down planned spending
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Biochemistry and Medicine data in Pharmacology - Assignment ExampleAD brains are particularly marked by neurofibrillary tangles, granulose plagues, neuronal cell loss, innate tolerant responses as surface as a prominent activation of the glial cells. This paper critically investigates the potential relationship between Alzheimers disease, Beta-C kinins and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as well as their improvement on the cognitive function of patients.Numerous recent empirical studies suggest that the labor of a class of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is significantly diminished among the patients suffering from Alzheimers disease. Generally, BDNF is normally produced in the entorhinal cerebral cortex area of the brain (the part involved with cognition and memory) throughout an individuals life Honea et al., 2013). It is astray believed that the production of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor is particularly enhanced by beta-C kinins, a class of neurop harmacological molecules some of which include AB 123.Although the correlation between the lowered levels of BDNF and Alzheimers disease (AD) has not been effectively established, studies indicate that neurotrophic factors normally frivol a critical protective role against amyloid beta toxicity (Mattson, 2008, p.97). This is further supported by the growing number of scientific studies in Alzheimers disease that have revealed significant alterations in the immune responses including observable changes in the macrophage and lymphocyte distribution and activation.In a recent study conducted by Weinstein et al(2014), the researchers examined the levels of BDNF in 2131 healthy adults and then followed them for ten years. The results revealed that up to 50% individuals with the highest baseline levels of BDNF were less likely to develop delirium compared to their counterparts with the lowest levels of the molecule. It was concluded that a higher level of BDNF may protect against the oc currence of memory loss.
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Marketing Myopie article Critiques - Essay ExampleLevitt tries to tell on the theory to the very managers that he qualifies as failures for the lack of localise on the customers. Most theories of business would piddle down his arguments. Tailor making policies and shifting reapingion to suit the customer is like having customers run the business. It is further impractical.Levitt gives an example of the transport industry. He details that the railway has been replaced by other intend of transport that butt against the needs of the customers. The railroad, according to him, failed to meet the needs of the customer. He argues his case that I was because they had a wrong explanation for their business product orientation. Levitts argument was unwarranted and misinformed. The reason the railway was overtaken by other means of transport in my view is due to the technological advancements. If there is a new invention in the transport industry today and airplanes are phased out, will the reason be due to lack of focus on the customer? Not really.Levitt goes on and on with the case studies of the theory. He makes mention of the movie enceinte of the world Hollywood. He notes that the film industry has been overtaken by TV. His take is that TV entertains the customers while movies do not. in that respect is no comparison between the two in reality. Television and film are two contrastive entities in business. His argument is like saying that the canned food industry has beaten the beverage industry.Levitt gives the nylon and glass-based companies as success stories of focusing on the customer not the product. He says they have both customer and product advantages that emanate from their excellent technical competence. They apply excellent technical competence to fulfill the customers needs. His example of a success story in his theory is just hilarious. The clientele for glass and nylon are mega-companies who specify the prime(a) they want not retail consumer s.The feeble cases that Levitt
Monday, April 22, 2019
Law case study - Essay grammatical caseFor a claim of negligence to succeed, the claimant must establish that the defendant owed him a duty of cargon, and that the defendant was in breach of that duty. If a breach occurred or non is more a question of positive point which is to be established on the basis of the evidence. However, the standard of distribute (expected) is a matter of law. In position law, the prevailing principle is that the standard of care is absolutely objective. The defendants actions or lack of actions are measured against the standard established by society for the task performed. In practice, the objectivity of the standard of care means, if a person purports to have a certain skill, or initiates endeavors which imply his possession of a situation skill, then he must display a level of competence associated with that skill. When we view the case of swell v. Cooper 1958 DIY home repairs must meet the standard of a reasonably competent tradesman. On a wh ole the law of negligence is focused on who willing pay the cost for the liberation or damage. Generally, the motive of the defendant is irrelevant to the determination whether he breached the duty of care. We will first look at the Housing Act, 1966 s 39 which empowers the council to make loans for the acquisition of houses. To satisfy the necessary requirements in qualifying the borrower as a bone fide recipient and all the property as fit, the council must perform (via its agent or representative), an inspection of the dwelling on the basis of two pertinent criteria (1) establishing the actual value and (2) that the dwelling will provide sufficient security for the loan.... as a result of the report by the Councils valuer, as to the actual value of an existing houseand thatis so situated as to be readily saleable, in the event of a sale by the Council becoming necessary, due to default by the borrower (Ward). In an accompanying opinion in this case, Castell J., 1985 I.R. 29 at p 52 held that, In light of the facts to which I have referred it seems to me that there was a sufficient relationship of proximity or neighborhood between the plaintiff and the council such as that in reasonable contemplation of the council carelessness on their part in carrying out of the valuation of the bungalow the plaintiff (in view of his knowledge that they were going to value the premises and his very limited means), would himself employ a lord person to examine it and so they should have known that if the valuation was carelessly done it might not disclose defects in the premises and as a result the plaintiff might suffer loss or damage. So it seems to me that a prima facie duty of care existed and there is nothing in the dealing between the two parties which should restrict or limit that duty on any way. In particular no warning against reliance on the proposed valuation was given (Costello 1985) Also in Siney v. Corporation of capital of Ireland 1980 IR400, OHiggins, C J states at p.414, In this case it is sufficient to say that many of these recent decisions recognize a assertable liability where the exercise of statutory powers in a negligent manner results in3injury to
That allow for explore the resiliency of elders of the Asian cultrue - Research Paper ExampleConversely, recent indication is provoking the premiss that elderly people ar solely recipients of support, or that they obtain more help from their adult children than they throw off to them. Older people though are crucial sponsors of assistance to their children as well as their grandchildren, together with providing financial aid, baby-sitting assistances, housing, advice, and emotional support. Older people nowadays are more probable to afford try-on for their sons and daughters, than they are to afford accommodation for them. This tendency has developed in recent years as elder folks cause turned out to be more financially secure while their children are less stable. roughly lately, the fact of boomerang children -- going back to the parent nest because of unemployment and divorce -- is sensibly accountable for this development.An outline of give-and-take exchange where aging parents obtain more assistance from their adult children than they whirl to their adult children--or responsibility reversal--naturally upturns with age, yet it cannot be assumed a characteristic of older parents in general. Findings have revealed that older parents are essentially net suppliers of assistance up to their 80s. Additionally, when responsibility reversal results, the swap tends to ensue for contributory more than responsive types of assistance. Several viewpoints on the elderly family indicate that getting too oft assistance (over-support) from children or getting assistance from children, which cannot be countered may trigger distress amid older people. Most African American older people choose to stay functionally independent for as such(prenominal) as it is conceivable before depending on children for assistance. Findings display that the aging generally anticipate less assistance from their own children than they (children) are eager to offer. Certainly, at hig h points of strength, intergenerational social
Sunday, April 21, 2019
environmental Education - Essay ExampleIs it of any good to our children and adults or rather how is it affecting them both positively and negatively? Why is environmental education lacking? What type of curriculum is needed and why? What ar the precautions and strategies that need to be implemented or put in place to ensure that our environment is interpreted care of? Of what good depart it bring to our generation to come? What is the philosophy behind this educational overture? And finally, do ethics play a role in education? These and many more will be featured in our research project.The first question that rings in our mind is the inwardness of the word environment. Environment is a very broad terminology that is taken to mean generally the flora and fauna (Trees and animals). Environment entails trees, animals, air, waters, the soil (earth) and even people. It is in the broader sense of the word everything that there is in the cosmos that supports life is what we call our environment. Forests for instance contribute to a greater amount of our environment without forgetting the animals. In mindless therefore, environment is our surroundings.Environmental Education is generally making people aware of the environment. It is the integration of what is learned in class in relation to our environment. Or rather put it this way that environmental education is the internalisation of both the materials acquired in classroom and then apply them to the environment. It is about informing the Citizens about the beauty, the love, the goodness, the friendship, and the values of ever so ensuring the safety of where we anticipate. It is all about keeping the good relationship between ourselves and the place in which we live and these can be achieved through ensuring that our environment is always clean. In short, this is a call for the virtue of responsibility.However, let us first look at the current environmental educational system in the USA. The husbandry he re considers every aspect of our
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Essay ExampleOn the blast of the operating of the transmission line demographically our target foodstuff is mostly wo hands 25-40 years of age working full-time and earning preceding(prenominal) average income. We are planning to operate the company in the U.S and marrying are the strategies that we intend to apply.Our business is called Holistically shredded. We deliver total body and mind transformations via tailored personal training sessions, professional nutritional meal plans, naturopathy consultations and motivational support. Our business will be operating from Hard Candy gym at Sydney CBD. Legal form of ownership is sole trader as it is easy to establish.Our products and services include respective(a) personal training sessions, professional nutritional meal plans, and naturopathy consultations and also provide motivational support. Various unpaid exercises including squat, leg extension, and others are major part of our products and services. We also frame conglomer ate nutritional and diet plans for various people these plans vary accordingly with the interest of individuals (Czinkota, 2012). Furthermore, we also facilitate our customers by motivating and encouraging them to follow their diet plans. We are having separate plans for such individuals to encourage them to follow their fitness and nutritional plans.The target market the health organization would aim at would be a various number of groups of people. One of these aggregations of individuals susceptibility be individuals looking to get thinner through legitimate practices and having great to guide them through their charge reduction travel. The other target business sector might be individuals looking to prepare and affix muscle estimate and in addition bulky quality. The other assembly of individuals might be lady, men and adolescents that are searching for great cardio sessions with a qualified mentor. The recreational center will expect to hap these assemblies of individuals w ith the offices and great
Friday, April 19, 2019
Ford Galaxy - Essay ExampleFord Galaxy is a seven-seater luxury large Multi-Purpose Vehicle (MPV) developed jointly by Ford and Volkswagen and was first introduced in 1995. During the capital of Kentucky Motor Show held last September 2005, the latest Ford Galaxy model was unveiled. It will be available in the market in the middle of 2006.In the Motor Industry Facts 2006 published by SMMT (Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders Ltd.), total railroad car registration in UK reached 2.4 meg as of 2005. In table 1 below, Lower spiritualist segment remains to be the most dominant car type in the industry owning 31.2% of the market. Ford Focus, Vauxhall Astra, and Renault Megane are among the products included in this category. However, total car registration was down by 5% compared to 2004. Major factors attributed to such decline were lower consumer spending, increasing interest rates, and intense competition in the industry.Very evident in the last three historic period in the in dustry was the shift of consumer preferences in terms of car type. Share of Superminis like Corsa, Fiesta, and 206 went down by 3.9% while its alternative Lower Medium increased market share by 2.8%. Furthermore, SUVs or Dual Purpose 4x4s and MPVs increased share in the industryNew car registrations can be classified as non-private (fleet and business) and private. An estimated of about 44.1% of total car registrations were categorised as private vehicles. ... In terms of non-private, 49% were contributed by business segment and the stay 7.3% for fleet. Table 1MPVs or minivans are slowly gaining popularity in the industry resulting to a 3-year compounded one-year growth rate (CAGR) of 7.6% against total industry CAGR of -1.6%. However, total MPV declined by 8% which is somewhat similar to the office staff of the total car industry. MPVs are also known as people carrier, multi-utility vehicle, or to some goal as minivan. A typical MPV can seat 7 people or more, relatively higher(p renominal) than normal sedans, and can be characterised as a family car. It is further segmented in three major categories - mini-MPV (e.g. Hyundai Matrix), compact MPV (e.g. Vauxhall Zafira), and large MPV (e.g. Ford Galaxy) depending on its body size and seating capacity. Market NeedsIn the survey involving 3,000 new car buyers conducted by Vauxhall Motors last 2003, reliability turned out to be the most important consideration affecting car purchase. Price which was the primary consideration in year 2002 evil to 4th position. Comfort, fuel economy, price, exterior size and space in vehicle are other leaders considerations influencing car purchase in UK. Market Forecast Car registration forecast in 2006 is nonoperational negatively skewed according to SMMT. Expected new car registrations will be around 2.375 million or -2.7% compared to actual car registration in 2005. Weak economic forecast which is directly cerebrate to weakening consumer spending is considered as one of th e significant deterrents in 2006. Conversely, diesel demand is predicted to increase in the coming years. CompetitionGeneral target buyers for MPV are young families with children age 6 to 11 years old who want better fuel economic savings. The growing fierce
Thursday, April 18, 2019
story of Education in USA - Research Paper ExampleHe realized that different school-age child had different academic needs and advocated activities in his curriculum. Jefferson pushed a system of fosterage which accomplished the base of infrangible foundation of universities and colleges.In 1786 Benjamin Rush presented an educational system which he hoped would meet the needs of elected ideology. He was of the view that the sanctuary of a nation lies in a proper education. He advocated education for both men and women to understand the principles of democracy and to implement it properly.Noah Webster, during his tenor, identified the need for schools to have text books in American language and experienced a conflict towards the British which they currently used. His unique achievement was American dictionary, which he created instead of following other dictionaries.The federal official government has played its role to improve standardized of education throughout America. They have strived to help citizen in getting better quality of education by lending extra money to those who need it. Most of the credit goes to G.I Bill, National Defence Education stage (NDEA), and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), because of which many Americans have been able to get higher education. Granting federal land to the states for educational purposes started with the Northwest ordinance of 1785. The G.I. Bill of rights is the base which worked as a lime scar for providing educational benefits for veterans of World War II. The general aim of this legislation has been to compensate veterans for their services and sacrifices. Many veterans took expediency from this Act and graduated from this program with prolific careers. Federal government also established number of schools for specialized purposes and encouraged recreational education in acts as NDEA in 1958. Political dynamics laid hurdle race in actions of federal aid legislation, but the situation transfigured when Soviet Union, rival of US created space satellite. another(prenominal) act that promoted federal financial aids further, was ESEA of 1965. Where NSEA emphasized on science and math, ESEA responded to the prominent social change in society. The ESEA related to President Lyndon Johnsons program War on Poverty encouraged special programs for children of unretentive families. In 1981 this act was named chapter 1 of Educational Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA). (Christen Baylis-Heerschop, 2007).The National Service decree of 1993 (the National and Community Trust Act), and the Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (better known as prevalent Law 94-142) are merely current extensions of federal involvement in education that reaches back to American historical beginnings. The 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Education Amendments of 1997 extended provisions of Public Law 94-142 to all citizens from ages 2 to 21. Provisio ns of both acts are under continuing review by congressional committees to clarify variant provisions. The acts require inclusion, or placing students with physical and emotional challenges in regular classrooms. The 2005 funding reauthorization act, Improving Education Results for Children with Disabilities, expanded, defined, and minute
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
ethics of Information Communication Technology - Dissertation ExampleFor the gathering of information and knowledge, the instrument that is required by all human beings is ICT, and security in this regard should be guaranteed to them as their basic right. However, throughout the world, the rights of military man ar violated one way or the other. Violation of these rights has created new problems in the human cordial system like cybercrime, digital divide, digital security and privacy concerns for all of them. Round the globe, all of this has bear on the lives of the people directly or indirectly (Sembok, 2003). This shows that due to the rising facilities of the global world, the related crimes are withal increasing in the numbers. This increasing rate of the cyber crime has put the privacy and security of the individuals at stake. With such backdrop, this paper will establish the types of cyber crimes and the upcoming frauds that are done by them. The objective of this paper is to play up the effects of this crime and under the light of this crime, see the effects it has created on the economy of the United Kingdom. The manipulation of this paper is to discuss the effects of cyber crimes on the citizens, businesses, government, and the relevant interventions to deal with it. The range of cyber crimes is much diversified so the paper will shed light on crimes such as child pornography, identity frauds to the individuals, revenue and benefits fraud, NHS frauds, pension frauds, and local government and central government frauds faced by the government. The most affected firmament is the business sector so a major portion of the paper aims to cover this segment and discuss frauds like IP theft, industrial espionage, and online theft. Literature Review The literature review section initially discusses the customary use of internet and the need of using this technology it also talks about the crimes that result from this under the light of different k inds of literature. Then limiting to the topic, the paper aims at discussing the keyword Cyber Crime. According to Nelson (2009) cybercrime is referred to as the undertaken activities by the criminals for the financial gain. He says that such kinds of activities are utilize to take advantage of the vulnerabilities that are in use of the internet and other electronic systems. These systems illegitimately attack or access the information that is used by the businesses, citizens, and government. In this light, the paper will discuss the types of cybercrime and also talk about the slipway these cyber crimes are taking place. A number of studies and researchers have been done in order to investigate the topic under discussion. However, this area needs to be researched more so that more valid and authentic conclusions can be drawn from the studies and the results could be applied to the society. The topic is chosen for my research, keeping in view its significance in the field and also, because of its importance in society. As it has been observed in the societies that as people are acquire more aware of the alarming nature of this issue and are interested in finding ways to help overcome this problem, more research work is needed in this area.
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
MCA option in church tasteOnce upon a time there was a boy his name was Sonish he was a marvellous bowler hat and thence he perceive from his friends that there was a MCA selection in church ingress he thought that if he is a good bowler he can attend the selection he ran and told his mom that there mca selection his mom told okay moreover where did you saw that Sonish told I heard from my friends mom told okay then Sonish told yes he ran and stand on the line and but he was unbalanced because there alder people than him but still he told himself to not give up then he went inside then his turn came and he bowled it was a yorker but the batsman easily defensed it but still he had confidence again the same bowl and he was bowled the judges were impressed with him the beside two bowls were short length then the next two bowls were full length. wherefore the sir told you bowled well met Bhuvneshwar Kumar from tomorrow he will be your coach Sonish told ok sir but I am sele cted if I told you come tomorrow means you are selected.The next day I came kumar sir told that commencement ceremony lead and then we will do net workout ok I was the first win to fill out and then I went to sir and told I finished then sir told quick we have to do net practice I bowled the vi bowls actually well after 10 days of practice sir told Sonish tomorrow we have to go to Kandivali you have been selected for a tournament fast Sonish was very happy the next day he went with his marvelous bowling his team went to the final and the final was interesting we were bowling first Sonish took common chord wickets and the lead was 35 in 6overs the score was 24-6 I came and hit two sixes and finished the game and remembered in Maharashtra cricket association then after a year Sonish again came back and of all timeyone were saluting him because he win many prizes in three tri-series Ranji Trophy and first class cricket. Then he came to kumar sir and told sir I did my seam a nd came now what is left for me to do sir told now you have to get the under-19 world cup Sonish told ok sir I will try my best after 10 days the first u-19 run into was there it was India vs. Australia India won the toss and choose to bowl first then Sonish was from the stump the first over went excellent for the Indian team then following the first o over till the 50th over the target for the Indians was 234 in 50 overs it was easy task if we play the game seriously we won the game very easily like this only we won the coming 8 games then India came in the semi- finals are match was vs. south Africa they were an easy team if we play very serious cricket well they were batting first they set a target of 280 we had to get a good start and then I that didnt see but suddenly are score came to 275 then a big six and we won it was a hard score but we still got it in 45.5 overs this was the best match ever for India final lost by the Indians then I was the presentation ceremony in that I got the best bowler award through the tournament. The best sport cricket the best thing in the world
Monday, April 15, 2019
knightly Archetypes Utilized in village EssayHamlet by William Shakespeare is a complex play because of its multiple dimensions. Upon dissection, the influence of separate works can be observed in it. One of the most prominent of these works is the York tholepin of Man. This particular play is a very poor remake of the book of Genesis in the bible. However, William Shakespeare utilizes the chivalric traditions exemplified in the sink of Man to create the characters in Hamlet.For example, Hamlets mother, Queen Gertrude, shows an uncanny parallel to Eve from the Fall of Man. Gertrudes behavior and characteristics fall under the archetype presented in the rendition of Genesis. Eve can be exposit as gullible, nave, accidentally ariselious, trusting, curious, manipulated, and egocentric. These same traits can be used to identify Gertrudes personality as well.In part three of the Fall of Man, Satan, in the form of the worme, is trying to convince Eve to rebel against God by ea ting the forbidden fruit. The worme claims that it will make her omnipotent. When Eve questions Satan, he replies, Why trowes gramme noght me?/ I wolde by no- kynnes ways/ Telle noght but trouthe to thee (pg 270, line 75). In perhaps one of her most nave and gullible moments, Eve responds, Than wille I to thy teching traste,/ and fange this frute unto oure foode (78).Likewise, in Hamlet there is a moment that closely mirrors this. When poof Claudius and Polonius decide to spy on the interaction between Hamlet and Ophelia, Claudius tells Gertrude to leave even though it is her son. She simply answers, I shall obey you (III,I, 42). These two quotes show the extent to which both Eve and Gertrude produce been manipulated by their quirk and weakness. Eve only wanted to know if the fruit contained a certain power and Gertrude was interested in her sons apparent madness yet both women put aside independent thinking and oblige the villain. later(prenominal) in the Fall of Man, Eve brin gs the forbidden fruit to Adam saying A worme has done me for to witte/ We shalle be as goddis, thou and I,/ If that we ete/ Here of this tree (91). Then in Hamlet, Gertrude asks her son, Have you forgot me? ( III, IV, 16). She is essentially asking if Hamlet has forgotten whom he is verbalizeing to. In the Fall of Man, Eve portrays egocentric qualities.When she discovers the power of the fruit, she suddenly desires to voice it with Adam so that they might be god- like together. She wants to be all knowing and powerful, so when she sees the fate she takes it. Gertrude is self-centered as well. She doesnt want to lose her standing as queen when her husband dies so she marries his crony not even two months following his passing. When Hamlet confronts her on her actions she retorts with anger that he would dare speak to her in that manner. Both Gertrude and Eve have a mental self image of themselves that is better than what others distinguish them as and both women strive to maint ain/ improve that image.Gertrudes character directly parallels that of Eve in treasure to characteristics and traits. They are both archetypal characters but the resemblances are eerie. The women both end in similar courtesy as well. Eve eats the forbidden fruit and guarantees her banishment from the Garden of Eden. Gertrude drinks the poison and ensures her own death. The characters have too many similarities to be dismissed as coincidence. Ergo it can be stated with a level of confidence that William Shakespeare utilizes the medieval traditions outlined in the Fall of Man to write Hamlet.Works CitedMedieval Drama. Ed. David Bevington. Boston Houghton Mifflin Company, 1975Hamlet. William Shakespeare. Ed. Louis Wright. Virginia Lamar. New York Simon Schuster Inc, 1958
William Goldings Lord of the flies, and Stevensons Jekyll and Hyde EssayBoth William Goldings Lord of the flies, and Stevensons Jekyll and Hyde center on on the duality of mans offense and the reasons for that sudden change in character. Golding is rather more interested in group evil, and the way that this develops in people, whereas Stevenson focuses on singular evil and the powers that drive a man to attach the devil.In 1954, after being in the Second World War, Golding reflected on the evil he had seen in his fellow men, and was appalled at how cruel, animal like, and savage humans could be. He wrote this book to show the sincere nature of men and how taking away civilized society could change people very pronto into evil creatures, once the rules have all only if gone, I learned during World War ii just how brutal people can be to each other. Not Just Germans or Japanese, but everyone. I tried to point that out. Some have said that the brutality of the novel is imp ossible, its not, look at any newspaper, William Golding emphasizing the evil theme to his book. Being a teacher in the 1950s, he was in constant contact with younger children and was shocked at their naivety and lack of belief that evil existed in their picture perfect society. So on the island to represent evil, he created Jack Merridew. Jack is a pasquinade of Hitler, who in the 1940s was trying to take over the world with his Nazi regime, Jack stabbed in the spread with his index finger, this quote shows a certain likeness to Hitlers behavior and his very evil mind.Being brought up in Victorian England, Stevenson was living in a very class orientated society. Issues such(prenominal) as conjure up, crime, and murder were all both brushed under the carpet and forgotten about, or were never verbalise of in social context. Middle class Victorian men were expected to be true gentlemen to whom sex was a very low priority. This ignoring of sex and other taboo issues led many men and women to film double lives in public they were very orderly and tumefy conducted but behind closed doors or when darkness fell they would emerge and show the true nature of their wildly person.Evil was also some other subject that was totally ignored, and consequently people denied its existence. So, in his book Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Robert Stevenson aimed to show that evil was alive and well in Victorian London society and that middle class peoples double personalities could be very antithetical and often a great deal more sinister than the face that they showed in public. The amount of evil and villainous material in Victorian literature was so little, so being influenced by such novels as Mary Shelleys Frankenstein and big crimes of the day such as Jack the Ripper, he decided to economize and to explore the idea of what evil in texts would be like.In Lord of the Flies evil is explored and displayed in the form of two young boys Jack and Roger. This alone is quite unus ual as young boys are not usually classed or seen as evil characters, but this book is anything but usual in every sense of the word. In this novel the main evil character, Jack has a definite have to dictate over all others around.
Saturday, April 13, 2019
Stress Essay1.0IntroductionWe gener onlyy use the word underscore when we feel that everything seems to buzz off become too much, we argon overloaded and wonder whether we really can distinguish with the pressures placed upon us. Anything that poses a challenge or a threat to our swell up-being is a filter. Some stockes bind you going and they argon upright for you, without any tune at all many say our lives would be boring and would probably feel pointless. However, when the siftes undermine both our mental and physical health they be bad. In this text we shall be focusing on stress that is bad for you.Stress is your bodys solution to change. Its a very somebody thing. A situations that one soul finds trying whitethorn not b some other someone else. For example, one person may become tense when capricious another person may find driving a source of relaxation and joy. Something that causes fear in some concourse, much(prenominal) as rock climbing, may be fun for others. Theres no way to say that one thing is bad or trying because everyones different. Not all stress is bad, either. Speaking to a group or watching a close football back up can be stressful, but they can be fun, too. Life would be dull without some stress. The account is to manage stress properly, because unhealthy responses to it may lead to health problems in some people. numerous people see to it stress as they combine busy lives and the demands of matter while trying to too hold open time for friends and family. For some people, stress becomes almost a way of life. We all experience episodic stress, acquiring ready for a major exam, completing and important paper, perhaps getting ready for an important a way of life. We know that stress prolonged period of time, can gull increase certain health risks, to say nothing of the way and tear that happens to relationships and general wellbeing. The simple guide use materials adapted from some(prenominal) college campu ses with active stress reduction programs. It explores the origin of stress and provides some basic ways to assess the level of stress you may be feeling and than suggest some easy to incorporate ways to falloff the level of stress.Although we all talk more or less stress, it often isnt clear what stress is really somewhat. Many people consider stress to be something that happens to them, an event such as an injury or a job loss. Others think that stress is what happens to our body, mind, and behavior in response to an event (E.g. heart pounding, anxiety, or savvy biting). While stress does involve events and our response to then, these are not the most important factors. Our fantasys about the situations in which we find ourselves are the critical factor. When something happens to us, we automatically evaluate the situation mentally. We decide if it is threatening to us, how we need to potty with the situation, and what skills we can use. If we decide that the demands of the situation outweigh the skills we have, then we label the situation as stressful and defend with the classic stress response. If we decide that our coping skills outweigh the demands of the situation, then we dont see it as stressful.Stress is not something strange to our daily life nowadays. Everybody may feel stress when they are set about bad situation. Generally, word of stress has been used in social science research since a well known medical expert Selye pioneered the research for psychological stress in 1950s. Cox Brockley (1984) stated that stress is a perception phenomenon which exists from a comparison between the command given and ability of a person to execute he task success to the full. Unbalanced situation in this mechanism will lead into stress experience and ultimately into stress reaction. Beside that, stress is a pattern of oppose (physiological, psychological) responses occurring in situations where people observe threats to their well being which they may be unable to meet (Lazarus Folkman, 1984). Selye (1978) define idiosyncratic stress as the stated of pressure or accent when the individual reacts to a stressor.1. Background of the study 1.1.1Reading (types) Basically, stress is a state of individual in a response to the stimulus of a stressor (anything that potentially leads to change because changes are stressful for an organism) and resulting hardship (Boss, 1987). Stress is normal and neutral (neither positive nor negative) (Boss, 1988 Selye, 1956). It is a continuous outcome protean in that there are degrees of stress (Boss, 1988) as well as a categorical variable. Types of individual stress based on degrees of stress included deprived, optimal and excessive (Selye, 1956). A derived degree of stress may result in a lake of motivation while optimal stress tends to lead to motivation. lush stress may lead to crisis.Stress can come from any situation or thought that makes you feel frustrated, angry, or anxious. Everyone sees situations differently and has different coping skills. For this reason, no two people will move exactly the same way to a given situation. Additionally, not all situations that are labeled stressful are negative. Facing the mid-term test, completing the thesis and doing the assessments work for distributively subject may not be perceived as threatening. However, we may feel that situations are stressful because we dont feel fully prepared to deal with them.Stress is a normal part of life. In small quantities, stress is good it can motivate you and help you become more productive. However, too much stress, or a well-set response to stress can be harmful. How we perceive a stress provoking event and how we react to it determines its impact on our health. We may be motivated and invigorated by the events in our lives, or we may see some as stressful and respond in a manner that may have a negative effect on our physical, mental, and social well-being. If we forever respond in a ne gative way, our health and happiness may suffer.By understanding ourselves and our reaction to stress-provoking situations, we can learn to handle stress more effectively. In the most accurate meaning, stress management is not about learning how to bar or escape the pressures and turbulence of modern living it is about learning to appreciate how the body reacts to these pressures, and about learning how to develop skills which enhance the bodys adjustment. To learn stress management is to learn about the mind-body connection and to the degree to which we can control our health in a positive sense.Stress is believed to be caused by the various problems that exist such as problems at school, financial problems, family problems and problems in their surroundings. Teenagers also experience stress because they are sometimes trapped between making decisions which is to follow rules and orders or to be put out and discover the world like they should. Teenagers in the previous days were t rained for things that were suitable with their age so that they can use it to manage their lives.According to Zulkifli (1988), teenagers always impertinence problems in adjusting. Teenagers especially those who are students always face learning problems, career management and also problems in solving personal and social matters. These are the factors that contribute to stress in life. Students are starting to shift from a life that is dependent on others to a life that needs them to release the dependency and start carrying their own responsibilities. Morris (1990) stated that teenagers always face stress in school and they compete with each other to get better grades.Levine, 1970 (in Dobson, 1980), explained that stress have a relationship with a specific situation like a learning environment in school and the inability to do work perfectly and the failure to make anything that is desired. The issues of students doing things like punching teachers, cursing, slandering and hurtin g teachers, whoredom and others calls for researchers to see the mentioned phenomena is connected to the stress situation among teenagers.Adams (1983, in Kamaruddin, 1997) stated that the biggest problem among schooling teenagers is the matters associated with their schooling. Other than that, problems that womanly students have to deal with are communication and family problems. For the male students, their side problems are problems with getting involved in sports, recreation and also financial problems. The many responsibilities and pressure cause stress to the teenagers like the need to achieve good academic grades, character building and also good attitude besides trying to discover with their personal needs.For many young adults, college is the best time of life. These critical years of adjustment can also be under minded by depression, anxiety, substance, abuse and eating disorder. Stress exists from the change in an individuals thinking and their lifestyle nowadays. Now, i ndividuals have changed in their perceptions and the way they interpret this life.Students in their teens are the ones who are going through the transitional phase, which is an intermediate of childhood and adulthood. During the teen years, a lot of biological, physical, mental and worked up changes are happening, as well as the changes in responsibility and role. In order to stabilize these changes, the students are always confronted with problems and conflicts (Asri, 2002). For some students who are not capable of dealing with it, the changes will create stress and tension to them. If it is not dealt with in the early stages, the student may experience mental problems (Newman, 2005).As a UiTM KBM students, study itself is potentially very stressful with many different and sometimes conflicting pressures (reading complex technical or theoretical material, writing assignments for deadlines, working part time, having a successful social life, family demand) perhaps peaking near the e xams, which themselves explicitly test your performance under pressure by setting strict time conditions and removing potential resources such as books, colleagues, notes and etc. Study can also challenge your ideas of who you are, who you think you are or who you compliments to be, lead you to compare yourself with others, who maybe look like they have everything under control. Any change or transition, even a welcome one is stressful and study involves lots of transitions in addition to other life events for example, moving to another country, or another part of the country, meeting new people, different expectations from lecturers, and each academic year brings changes depends on different topics, lecturers, perhaps new housemates, which should not be underestimated.
Friday, April 12, 2019
Empiricism and Connie EssayAlthough Connie full treatment hard to relegate the visual aspect of creation a right char who is experienced with men, her assemble with Arnold reveals that this is only if a performance. She has created an beautiful braggy persona through her clothing, hairstyle, and oecumenical behavior and gets the wariness she appetites from boys. save Connie confuses her big businessman to command attention from boys with her desire to genuinely have them dog her in a informal way. The discern and romance plain in songs she listens to and images of pop culture that suffocate her ar much varied from the naturalism of adult sexuality. Although Connie does essay with sexuality, such as when she goes into the alley with Eddie, she is dreaded of actually becoming an adult. Arnold assistant takes her by force into adulthood, yet this unpeaceful act represents a gaucherie inside Connie herself the abandoning of childlike fondness for the realities of being a advanced woman. Although Connie works hard to present the appearance of being a mature woman who is experienced with men, her encounter with Arnold reveals that this is only a performance. She has created an attractive adult persona through her clothing, hairstyle, and general behavior and gets the attention she desires from boys.But Connie confuses her ability to command attention from boys with her desire to actually have them pursue her in a sexual way. The love and romance evident in songs she listens to and images of pop culture that surround her are much different from the reality of adult sexuality. Although Connie does experiment with sexuality, such as when she goes into the alley with Eddie, she is fearful of actually becoming an adult. Arnold Friend takes her by force into adulthood, but this violent act represents a shift within Connie herself the abandoning of childlike fantasy for the realities of being a mature woman.Although Connie works hard to present the appearance of being a mature woman who is experienced with men, her encounter with Arnold reveals that this is only a performance. She has created an attractive adult persona through her clothing, hairstyle, and general behavior and gets the attention she desires from boys. But Connie confuses her ability to command attention from boys with her desire to actually have them pursue her in a sexual way. The love and romance evident in songs she listens to and images of pop culture that surround her are much different from the reality of adult sexuality.Although Connie does experiment with sexuality, such as when she goes into the alley with Eddie, she is fearful of actually becoming an adult. Arnold Friend takes her by force into adulthood, but this violent act represents a shift within Connie herself the abandoning of childlike fantasy for the realities of being a mature woman. Although Connie works hard to present the appearance of being a mature woman who is experienced with men, her encounter with Arnold reveals that this is only a performance. She has created an attractive adult persona through her clothing, hairstyle, and general behavior and gets the attention she desires from boys.But Connie confuses her ability to command attention from boys with her desire to actually have them pursue her in a sexual way. The love and romance evident in songs she listens to and images of pop culture that surround her are much different from the reality of adult sexuality. Although Connie does experiment with sexuality, such as when she goes into the alley with Eddie, she is fearful of actually becoming an adult. Arnold Friend takes her by force into adulthood, but this violent act represents a shift within Connie herself the abandoning of childlike fantasy for the realities of being a mature woman.Although Connie works hard to present the appearance of being a mature woman who is experienced with men, her encounter with Arnold reveals that this is only a pe rformance. She has created an attractive adult persona through her clothing, hairstyle, and general behavior and gets the attention she desires from boys. But Connie confuses her ability to command attention from boys with her desire to actually have them pursue her in a sexual way. The love and romance evident in songs she listens to and images of pop culture that surround her are much different from the reality of adult sexuality.Although Connie does experiment with sexuality, such as when she goes into the alley with Eddie, she is fearful of actually becoming an adult. Arnold Friend takes her by force into adulthood, but this violent act represents a shift within Connie herself the abandoning of childlike fantasy for the realities of being a mature woman. Although Connie works hard to present the appearance of being a mature woman who is experienced with men, her encounter with Arnold reveals that this is only a performance. She has created an attractive adult persona through her clothing, hairstyle, and general behavior and gets the attention she desires from boys.But Connie confuses her ability to command attention from boys with her desire to actually have them pursue her in a sexual way. The love and romance evident in songs she listens to and images of pop culture that surround her are much different from the reality of adult sexuality. Although Connie does experiment with sexuality, such as when she goes into the alley with Eddie, she is fearful of actually becoming an adult. Arnold Friend takes her by force into adulthood, but this violent act represents a shift within Connie herself the abandoning of childlike fantasy for the realities of being a mature woman.
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Just Business Report EssayReading the book Just Business by Alexander hummock, it was very interesting to go through the topic of Christian ethics for line of reasoning. Looking at different scenarios that managers pass on to confront and it shows how nerve-wracking, heart wrenching and also guilt producing that it could be. The definition of ethics is the lead of should and of doing the office thing. The three main imageistics that were presented and emphasized in the Bible God is holy. God is just. God is love. Hill also talked about integrity, fairness and compassion that mirror holiness, justice and love. I loved how Hill supports his points by having Bible verses. For example he writes the salt and light of the world (Matthew 513-16) is the third force for good. I agree with many of the points Hill says such as we cannot serve two masters at the very(prenominal) time (Matthew 624) and it specifies that we cannot serve both God and money. They were also talking about justice procedural rights that focus on fair processes in decision-making. Substantive rights are what procedural rights seek to protect. Merit cogitate the concepts of cause and effect.Contractual justice is limited to three duties we must not violate a nix injunction by causing harm to former(a)s, we must respect procedural justice and we must march our contractual promises (Hill 46). Love is a universal word and many would consider it to be the centerpiece of Christian ethics (Hill 53). Love includes empathy, mercy and self-sacrifice. Empathizing with differents would include by celebrating with their triumphs and shouldering their pain. Mercy is quite hard to do because it takes action on their behalf and takes initiative in forgiving. In my experience, there are times when I do have trouble forgiving people, yet God gave me the strength to forgive the person. This will probably come up to a greater extent often while taking care of business. He also shows visuals such a s the tables and drawings that cook it easier to get the gist of what he was talking about. Part Two False ExitsThis addresses Dual Morality, honor, and Agency which they are known as false exits because they deposit ultimate ethical authority in human instrumentalities business culture, government and corporate government rather than in Gods character (Hill 67). Dual morality rejects the notion that universal principles of right and wrong exist (Hill 69). It also helps me have a visual when he shows examples of CEOs and what kind of decisions they have to make and what would be the ethical thing to do. Law is other false exits, when one presumes that if an action is well-grounded, it is still morally acceptable as well. There are times when there are many people just follow the law and assume that the law is right and the ethical way. There are flaws in the system and Hill shows a diagram in foliate 98, figure 6.1 illustrates the tension. Acts that are both ethical and lega lEthics - Acts that are unethical but legalLaw - Acts that are both illegal and unethicalAgency is the third false exit that negotiation about the problems that arises when the values of the employee diverge from those of the employer. It was intriguing to learn about the legalistic purist, the accommodating purist. These few chapters opened my look to see what kind of false exits that people use in the business world. Now I am aware of what people could use as false exits.Part Three TopicsHonesty and Deception is more common in the business environment but it is quite difficult concepts to apply. Honesty builds trust, establishes community and protects the self-regard of the audience (Hill 125), which allows partners to rely on each other and fosters community and respects each ones dignity. He also talks about deception and how justice condemns deception and it could lead to disaster and consequences. No right to hear the truth, exaggeration, and ambiguity are more deceptions th at people use in the business environment. The other topics that were discussed were Concealment and disclosure Employer-Employee Relations Employee Rights Discrimination and Affirmative Action the milieu and Property. The topic that stood out to me was the Environment because I have learned about different ethical enamours such as the anthropocentric view and the biocentric view 1 and 2.Hill also explains what the Role of Business is that even scripture makes it clear that our childbed is to responsibly steward Gods creation in the hear and now (228) and there are times that one would have to make difficult decisions. These topics have given me a new emplacement towards business. Overall, Just Business, by Alexander Hill, was an outstanding book to read especially when one is planning to go into the field of business. It was interesting to see how business runs with the combination of Christian ethics. I would highly recommend for other students to read this especially if they are looking into business. It was a great opportunity to read what it is like to be ethical in the business world, in comparison, to what it is like to be not ethical in the business world.ReferencesHill, Alexander (2008). Just Business Christian Ethics for the Marketplace. Downers Grove, IL InterVarsity Press.
Tuesday, April 9, 2019
To hear the concentration EssayTo regard the concentration of unknown standard atomic number 11 hydrated oxide response and the enthalpy compound of neutralization between different pairs of point- chemical group utilise (Thermometric titration) Principle of mode neutralization is the reaction between an acid and a base, which is an exothermic reaction. In this prove, two systems are apply to determine the concentration of atomic number 11 hydroxide solution and the enthalpy change of neutralization. H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l) Method 1 is to bank bill the temperature change of the reaction smorgasbord when different definite ratio of acid and base are reacted. thither are totally 7 ratios. For apiece ratio, the initial temperature of acid and base is recorded. When they are mixed, the final temperature of the sort is recorded so that Let Va, Vb, Ta, Tb, T be the volume of acid, volume of base, initial temperature of acid, initial temperature of base and final temper ature of mixture if they are not reacted (which is actually the initial temperature of mixture sooner reaction) one by one. Thus, Final temperature of the mixture by and by reacted T = Temperature change due to reaction.Method 2 is to measure the temperature of the reaction mixture when each small portion of acid are numbered to a fixed amount of base solution with utilize titration of acid against base. For both of the method, different pairs of acid and base are used and compared. To find the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution, the volume ratio of acid to base which makes the maximum temperature change(which means the reaction is most complete) should be found aside and so (Since the basicity of both acid and base is 1) By conservation of energy, the enthalpy change of neutralization = heat change of solutionThe density and specific heat capacity of solution are assumed to be equal to those of water since the differences between them are negligible. Results Method 1 Using nitric acid (A graph is attached at page 6) Volume of HNO3(aq) (cThis outlet was acceptable since it was consistent and nigh to the actual value. The enthalpy change of neutralization using nitric acid was found to be -47. 65kJ and -51. 48kJ severally by method 12.The enthalpy change of neutralization using ethanoic acid was found to be -48. 24kJ and -61. 11kJ respectively by method 12. The enthalpy of neutralization found out in this experiment was not current because the result was not consistent for method 12 and there were great errors in the experiment.The most substantial evidence that shows the result was not reliable was that theoretically, the enthalpy change of neutralization between ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide should never be higher than that between nitric acid and sodium hydroxide. This is because nitric acid is a strong acid while ethanoic acid is just a weak acid that it lonesome(prenominal) slightly ionized in water. Therefore extra energy was nee ded to ionize the ethanoic acid molecules so that the enthalpy change of neutralization of ethanoic acid should be less negative than that of nitric acid.However the result of this experiment contradicted with the above statement, so that the results of this experiment were not reliable. The most significant error in this experiment was heat personnel casualty to surrounding. Although foam cup was already used in the experiment, the upper surface of solution also produced great heat loss to the atmosphere. Also, there may still be heat loss through the cup. This error was much significant in method 2 since a period of clipping was used to titrate the solution. During the time of titration, a lot of heat can be transferred to the air and thusly the recorded temperature would be decreased.As a result, the calculated enthalpy change of neutralization would be cast down than the actual one. To get this error, a Styrofoam cup instead of a polystyrene cup can be used since Styrofoam is a better insular of heat than polystyrene. Some cotton wool can be used to wrap the cup in order to further reduce the heat loss to surrounding. Also, a palpebra can be used to cover the upper mouth of the cup in order to reduce the heat loss to surrounding. However, the lid should allow the thermometer to stir the solution and also allow the burette to add acids into it in method 2.Obviously, the titration in method 2 must be carried out quickly in order to minimize the time for the heat to be lost from surrounding, and thus reduce the above error. The mo error was the fluctuation of room temperature. In method 1, the initial temperature measured and the temperature of the solution just before reaction might be different. This was because of the change in room temperature since it would affect the temperature of solution by thermo equilibrium. In method 2, the room temperature before the titration and during the titration might be different.This would lead to an error on the measurement of temperature as the same case in method 1. To reduce this error, a much(prenominal) constant temperature in the testing ground can be constructed by an air-conditioner. This can reduce the error brought from the fluctuation of room temperature. In the experiment, method 1 is more suitable to determine the enthalpy change of neutralization since the temperature was measured just after the reaction in method 1 but the temperature was measured for several times in method 2 and this lead to error in the measure of temperature.However, method 2 is more suitable to determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution since the number of times of measuring the temperature of solution was much more than that in method 1. Then the peak of the graph can be found out more accurately. Thus the volume of acid used with the highest temperature change can be more accurate. Based on the results of this experiment, the enthalpy change of neutralization was more negative with wea ker acids, having same base. However, this statement was obviously wrong since in weaker acids, some energy was used to ionize the acid molecules.Theoretically, the enthalpy change of neutralization should be more negative with stronger acids. This was not shown on the results in this experiment since the error was too large. Conclusion The concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution was successively found out and it was acceptable, but the enthalpy of neutralization found out was not reliable since it was not consistent and it contradicted to the theoretical values. On the whole, the results was not acceptable and so the quarry of this experiment was not fulfilled.Reference http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Styrofoam http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/polystyrene.
Sunday, April 7, 2019
final solution Essay dodge a true Holocaust survivor. Though he was born in Sweden after the warfare and did not experience the Holocaust person eachy, his life is deeply affected by the event, both directly and indirectly. To begin with, art is troubled by nightmares and fears of the Holocaust, as he fantasizes when he was a child about certain debasing happenings. Secondly, he is impacted by the intense, accidental injurytizing toll the Holocaust had on his laminitis, which, subsequently, was transferred onto him. As a result of the trauma of his parents, Art was raised in a strict, decent manner that demanded he treat life with the highest assure and gratitude, being he did not fox to suffer the horrendous trials which the previous generations went through. And lastly he feels criminality oer not being a high-priced son to his father, being that their relationship is rocky, arguments constantly jailbreak out, and he has a reluctance to help.Art feels deeply moved by the horrible danger of the Holocaust. For exemplification , as a child, he would imagine that the showers in his house would pour down gas kind of of water. Also, he would often ask himself which parent he would save if he could have only have saved one from Auschwitz. Most likely, he would reason, his mother would have occurred as first choice, due to the point that he felt he had a part in her early death, because of the drop he showed her, when he answered with a cold and dismissive sure to her question do you still love me?Vladeks temperament and parenting carriage were clearly influenced by the war, as he forces his son to finish everything off his plate, advices ways to save money, and rigorously refuses to agree. Therefore Arts character traits and lifestyle choices were in turn clearly guided by his fathers personality and parenting style. In chapter 5, he complains to Francoise, He loved showing off how handy he was and proving that anything I did was all wrong. He ma de me completely neurotic about fixing stuffOne reason I became an artist wasit was an theatre where I wouldnt have to compete with him. Art experienced a guilt over not sacramental manduction his parents experience of the Holocaust and therefore wanted to live a life unassailable by the same trauma.Art is full of guilt for claiming hes not a good son to Vladek. Right from the first panel of the book, we are told that the two of them do not get a presbyopic particularly well, and that they do not see each other often, though they live fairly reason by. Art is always unsteady around his father, and when they speak, arguments sooner or later break out. For example, when Art drops several(prenominal) cigarette ash on the carpet, Vladek strongly rebukes him or, Vladeks revelation of the fact that he burnt Anjas diaries from the war sends Art into a fury.Furthermore, when Vladek asks his son for help around the house, Art is usually reluctant to do so and hesitant to give in. And, a lthough Art, at the very beginning, tells the reader that he hasnt seen his father in a long time, as well as the fact that they are not particularly close, he gives his father an demented greeting a rare action, which probably results from the guilt and possible regret he feels over the neglect in which he gave his own father.In conclusion, I believe that Art is a true Holocaust survivor as not only does he suffer from a kind of survivors guilt, but he also grew up with the aftermath of the other survivors trauma. The misery portrayed in the pages of his fathers story, and most evidently in Prisoner on the Hell Planet, dictates that Art not only sympathizes with the Holocaust survivors, but even feels like he was an actual member with them in their agonising trials. His choice to even publish the novel and make everyone aware of his familys suffering shows he believes that these surprise stories should not be ignored or forgotten, since doing so would only allow for the traumas to happen all over again.
Employee Performance Evaluation EssayDo you afford any questions about what is expected of you on the job? Are there any areas that are unclear for you?Being in the practice for more than than 13 years, I believe I am perform well as a Clinical Coordinator at _________________. I arrest laid well my primary duties non only to the doctors but to the patients as well. Patient flow is one of my main tasks. Therefore, doing it for more than a ten has really helped me learn by heart the task that I am supposed(p) and not supposed to do. Extended duties, in addition, provide me with more skills development. Nonetheless, I still believe that committing to my wreak as a clinician, to the doctors, and to the patients is my key to being fitting to perform what is expected of me for this particular job. And I know I pose worked hard for that.For me, the most unclear, and withal lacking, is the salary increase. I fork up been in this job for more than 13 years and my salary h as been pretty much the same. I love my job, that is why I perpetually work hard for it, but taking into consideration practicality, the standard of living has been constantly increasing and I know I have to keep up with that. It is quite disappointing that my co-employees and I are not getting fairly regular higher compensation grants.What do you consider to be your most important work in this review period?Being on the job itself and being satisfactory to practice what I love doing is one of the accomplishments that I have gained working here. Being able to be trained by professionals and get me going to my long-term goal of getting into Dental Hygiene program at this alliance college is a privileged appreciated for me. In addition, higher salary, maybe inasmuch as what I have trustworthy last year 2005, provides recognition for me as an employee for the decade or more that I have worked as a Clinical Coordinator.What areas would you like to meliorate on your performance an d how do you plan to do it? What so-and-so the doctors or other team members do to help you ameliorate?I have realized the delectation and hardship of working as a clinician. At the same time, I get firsthand impressions of the blessedness of the patients when they know that they are cured or exit get better soon. This is one of the pleasures I get working here. That is why I compliments to be even more creative. However, of course, I, as well as my co-employees, want to be recognized and get rightful(prenominal)ly compensative for the dedication we tender as clinical workers. It has always been known that additional compensation always boosts employee morale and encourages them to work better and become more productive and useful.Please tell us about any special accomplishments or projects that you have involved into to improve any aspect of the practice.As mentioned, I have been in the practice for over 13 years. more so I believe I have performed well enough indicated by being able to serve the same industry for more than a decade. As far as I know, I have accomplished what is expected of my performance. Otherwise, I would not have lasted long.In addition, to be able to improve my skills, I practice well at work and really put my heart into what I am doing. The doctors are continuously training me. And eventually, if given more recognition to pay costs for my schooling, I am planning to delve into a Dental Hygiene program sponsored by this community college to be able to enhance more my skills and become a more productive clinician.Other comments? When an employee violates the rules in the practice repetitively in every category, what action do you take to make sure that the doctors get the respect they want out of the employees?I believe one of my strengths is that I know well what I am doing and that I am confident of what I do as a clinical coordinator. As I have said, being on this job for a lot of years has put me in a short letter where I am assured of my capabilities, and my potentials.With regards to respect, I believe in the clich give respect to earn it. Doctors and employees alike, no matter who is the boss of whom, deserves to be respected and properly treated. This involves complying with the proper and professional orders of the doctors, for the sake of their professional work. And the doctors in turn, give to the employees also high regard for the dedication they put on their works and give them rightful recognition.What are the areas that need improvement?I think, training the new employees, especially the new ones must be given proper attention. It has always been good to start working with much needed meaningful stick. This go forth definitely improve the clinical employees skills and practice them even more making them knowledgeable and more experience when it comes to first hand practice and on the job training.Where do you see yourself in the next year and what steps would you like to take to get there? Probably a year from now, I would be taking one or two classes a quarter, hopefully halfway done with pre-requisites. I will still be working fulltime and hopefully be a super treatment coordinator and become more trained and knowledgeable in diagnosing treatments.Two to three years from now, I hope to refinement my pre-requisites and be able to prepare for dental hygiene examinations. But of course, I would not want to put up my work so I will still be working fulltime, probably 38 to 40 hours per week.And about five years from now, I may have completed by dental hygiene program having passed the examination.All these plans will help me not just boost my knowledge and skills, but also gain a higher degree of expertise about my chosen profession or career.
Saturday, April 6, 2019
JC Penney publicise EssayAs time progresses, the world, in terms of backup is rather contracting. There is growing communication, fundamental interaction and exchange between different parts of the world. Technologies that were once thought of as a far perceive notion argon now being used like household commodities and communication mediums that were once considered luxuries operable to few ar now necessities needed to prosper. And as the world is becoming more integrated and countries argon becoming more and more dependent on one an early(a) in terms of championship and business the concept of cross outing, advertising and promotion is becoming more prevalent and widespread. This paper will centering on the market of JC penny. It would elaborate on the print as well as online marketing. Moreover it would par and contrast advertising of online and bricks and howitzer companies. Discussion The demand for accountability of marketing is rising and alike the instancy of having less absolute dollars to work with so on that point is utmost need to be sharper, more purpose-made and more tar postulateed with marketing. JC Penney is a general retail strike out that specializes in clothing, accessories and home furnishing.It has been around for decades and has been catering the call for of consumers of all ages and backgrounds. JC Penneys main tar take a shit audition at the present times is women as well as youngsters. JC Penney faced criticism for being a brand that accommodated only the high-end and older generation. However, they do been changing their brand image and have been successful in implementing an image that is portraying a more young and voguish vibe. It now focuses on providing productions that have the characteristics of being conservative, traditional, modern or trendy.Fundamentally JC Penney has been escalated in the last historic period is by means of the item that it has moved from mass marketing to a more targeted approa ch. The few reasons for this change is that JC Penney believes that when business is difficult there is a lot large(p)er chance of success with getting the arms around the best nodes and increasing frequency sh atomic number 18 of wallet and trips with the best customers then trying to recruit in the raw customers in tough times that may not shopping the brand.JC Penney has managed to find ways to develop formats that allowed it to get more productivity out the money that is spend. It has also be keep down more targeted in terms of customer selection through becoming much sharper about making sure the right customers get the right format in the right piece. (Fetterman, 2006) JC Penney is one of the brands that hold the significance of being a brick and mortar store as well as an online retailer. Hence, it follows branding through all of the sources of mass media. It publishes magazines and postcards for the promotion of its products.It also advertises it products and offers throu gh newspapers, television ads and online ads. When comparing the online and print media usage it quoted by Mike Boylson the Executive Vice hot seat and Chief Marketing Officer of JC Penney that In the postcard you can deliver more of a gross sales message, or more of a discount message these postcards may drive the customers online to wait the full classification online where as the larger brand books of JC Penny show a much richer sense of the style that they have and they portray fundamentally completely different messages.The postcard includes the offer and a link to the website to go see the expanded content where as the book itself that goes out shows the product, the customer can then either come in the store or they can go online or place their order on the phone. shoot mail is very important because through versioning and through customer segmentation the company is able to manoeuver out more targeted messages that are highly accountable and are also able to track the results in direct mail to a degree that cannot be possible in a lot of the other traditional mass media used by JC Penney.JC Penney has been focusing a great deal over its brand image and has been trying to diversify and broaden its target audience. It has recently changed to a new brand root Every day matters along with the new tag line, the company has been working on enhancing its customers services and the outset of several temporary promotional stores. JC Penney is focusing on increasing the popularity of its brick and mortar stores as well as its online sell through providing customers with latest offers, discounts and showcasing their product line online for ease of access. Sloan, 2007) As the world is advancing so are the technologies and the ease with which communication is possible among all parts of the world. With the advent of the internet and the upscale improver in its popularity, there has been almost nothing that is not available on the World Wide Web. The pheno menon of e-shopping emerged with the internet. The fact that customers could get what they want in the ease of their homes, increased the recognition of the internet and also of online shopping.There are numerous differences and similarities between online shopping and traditional shopping. But what holds more importance is the way the companies market their product online and how different it is from the marketing and promotion of brick and mortar companies. (Lowrey, 2008) Marketing over the internet is considered less costly, as it is holds a lower cost of distributing reading on a global platform.More and more business are moving towards online retailing due to its outnumbered advantages in terms of cost, convenience and mobility of information over a great distance. One of the major focuses that companies including JC Penney is on the website. The success of online marketing is highly dependent over the outlook, design and the information provided by the website. Both the onlin e companies as well as brick and mortar companies need to identify their target audience before they implement any marketing strategies.This lets them focus on the type of marketing tool they would bring in them. Brick and mortar companies offer a more traditional aspect of shopping and they also follow a traditional approach of marketing. This is mostly through mass media such as newspapers, television broadcast and magazines. With the going of time, there are less and less companies that focus solely over brick and mortar business. Most companies are now available online as there is less overheads and larger audience prone to response through the internet.Conclusion In the end it is imperative to recognize the increasing importance of internet in business. Both, online retailing and brick and mortar companies hold their own set of characteristics that make them distinct. As the progress of online shopping is increasing there is still need for brick and mortar stores for traditio nal shoppers. Most companies, however, imply both the alternatives and hence, carry out their marketing accordingly.
Friday, April 5, 2019
Child proletariat defined as economic maturation nestling LABOURChild labour is unacceptable in developed countries for its negative impact and should be disheartened in every confederation. Child labour can be defined as economic exploitation and performing any wee-wee that is likely to be dangerous or hinder the childs education, and harmful to the childs health.Children under labour atomic number 18 denied their educational right and a normal childhood. Some children are restricted and defeat nearly are denied freedom of movement that is, the right for them to leave the workplace and join their families while near are abducted and forced to work.Child labour deprives children of their childhood and their dignity. Many of the children in every inn nowadays work long hours for low or no wage, often under the conditions harmful to their health, physical and amiable development. They are also deprived of an education and they may be separated from families. In my intervie w with Dr Quaye, a faculty member in American University of Nigeria, he stated that Children who do non complete their primary election education are likely to remain illiterate and never acquire the skills postulateed to get a job and contri stille to the development of the current economy. It was stated by United Nations Secretary world(a) Kofi, Annan that Child labour has serious consequences that stay with the individual and with society for longer than the years of childhood. materialisation workers not only face dangerous working conditions but they also face long-term physical, cerebral and emotional stress. They face an adulthood of unemployment and illiteracy.Furthermore, child labour occurs because of the high level of poverty and lack of development. For example, in that respect were these two kids in my own town Benin, Osagie and Uwa. Their parents were very poor and had no jobs, because of the level of hardship their parents were veneer these kids were forced to work in a block industry for there were no other alternate than sending their kids to work. At the workplace these kids were tortured by their employers. They were beaten anytime they made a little drift and they were given(p) heavy load of blocks to carry. This over a long period of time stunted their pay offth.to a greater extent also, there was a case of an abused eighteen year old girl in Casablanca. She narrates her fableI started working when I was fourteen, my mother died when I was twelve. I lived with my fathers wife. We needed money so I went to work. It was me and my half sister, who is now eight years old. My fathers wife works now that I dont work anymore, but I havent seen her for a year. A neighbor found me the job. I wanted to commit suicide, but because I mind, No one get out miss me. So I went to the neighbor and she found me work in Casablanca. We were very poor and I didnt see a way out. The work was prostitution, and I thought that killing myself would be better morally than dying of AIDS from prostitution but I had no choice, I have to do it. (Human Rights watch 2005).Therefore, child labour is a source of income for poor families. A study conducted by the inter matter labour organization (ILO) agent of statistics found that childrens work was considered essential to maintaining the political economy level of sign of the zodiacs, either in the form of work for wages, of help in household enterprises or of household tasks in order to free adult household members for economics activity elsewhere (Mehra Kerpelman 1996, pg 8). In some cases, the study found that a childs income accounted for was 34 to 37 percent of the total household income.The study concludes by pointing to the population of people living in India the percentage of the population of India living in poverty is high. In 1990, 37% of the urban population and 39% of the rural population were living in poverty (International labour organization 1995, 107). Poverty has an obvious relation with child labour, and study have revealed positive links in some case a strong one between child labour and such factors as poverty (Mehra Kerpelman 199, 8). Family that are poor need money to survive and their children are the only solution. They thought by sending their children to work, will yield more income to their financial aims.In addition, child trafficking led to child labour. acknowledge of a child for the purpose of sexual or labour exploitation, severe physical abuse, as in a case cited by Human Rights watch report, Contemporary form of slavery. Pakistan July, 1995. Two year ago at the age of seven, Anwar started weaving carpets in a village in Pakistans province of sindh. He was given some food, little free time and no medical assistance. He was told repeatedly that he could not stop working until he earned enough money to pay an alleged family debt. He was never told who in his family had borrowed money or how much he had borrowed. Any time he made an geological fault with his work, he was fined and the debt increased. Once when his work was considered to be too slow, he was beaten with stick. Once after a particularly painful beating, he tried to run away, only to be apprehended by the topical anaesthetic police who forcibly returned him to the carpet looms.More also, thousands of children are also bought and sold within and across national borders. They are trafficked for sexual exploitation, for begging, and for work on construction sites, plantations and into domestic work. The vulnerability of these children is even greater when they pull round in another country. Often they do not have contact with their families and are at mildness of their employer.For child labour to be totally eradicated these things must be fully met. Firstly, the government of every society should ensure that the needs of the poor are met before attacking child labour. If poverty is totally extended, the need for child labour will dimini sh. No matter how hard the society try, child labour will always exist until the need for it is removed. The development of the society is being held back by child labour. Children are growing up as illiterates because they have been working all of their life and not attending school. in series(p) rate of poverty is formed and the need for child labour is reborn after every generation. all(prenominal) society that is affected by this act of child labour, need to address the situation by dealing with the primary cause of child labour through the governmental policies and the enforcement of these policies. Only then will the society succeed in the fight against child labour.Secondly, government should try improving schooling and health dole out in general will help child labourers because if children are healthy and well educated, they will grow to up to help their society which will become a better place. For instance, making education arrogant and free will motivate most parent s to send their children to schools, instead of engaging them in commercial jobs.Finally, employers should not use child labour in ways that are socially unacceptable and that lead to a child losing his or her educational opportunities. The difficulty of the issue of child labour means that companies need to address the issue sensitively, and not take action which may force working children into more abusive forms of work.
Thursday, April 4, 2019
The Code Of Hammurabi History EssayAlmost 4,000 years ago, fairy Hammurabi ru lead the abilitydom of Babylon, a part of Mesopotamia. He gave the world one of its oldest sets of laws. Archaeologists erect the Code (collection of laws) of Hammuraabi forge on a black stone slab. An eye for an eye was the rule of the day. People who hurt others could accept the same fate or worse. The code withal dealt with business and civilization issues. An modeling of Hammurabis code If a builder builds a house for both(prenominal)one and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built go in and kills its owner, then(prenominal) that builder shall be put to death.The collection of rules was compiled toward the end of the forty-three year master of Hammurabi (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.), sixth ruler of the First Dynasty of Babylon, the king who directed the great political expansion of the empire and unionised a complex and sophisticated government and military bureaucracy to adminis ter it. He defeated powerful rival kingdoms and extended his political and diplomatic influence throughout the ancient Near East.The code of Hammurabi is the long-lasting and best organized of the law collections from Mesopotamia. It draws on the traditions of earlier law collections and doubtless influenced those that came later. The composition consists of a extended prologue, between 275 and 300 law provisions, and an epilogue. The prologue stresses the divinity fudges appointment of Hammurabi as ruler of his race, his role as guardian and protector of the weak and powerless, and his care and attention to the cultic needs of the patron deities of the many cities incorporated into his realm. The laws of this composition, inscribed on statuesque black stone stelas, stand as evidence of Hammurabis worthiness to rule.The complex start-off provision of the Laws of Hammurabi (LH) choose homicide and serve to establish immediately the states right to impose the death penalty on a fount LH 1 If a man accuses another man and charges him with homicide but then cannot bring proof against him, his accuser shall be killed. In formulating LH 1 in this manner, a number of pieces of information nearly the licit system are revealed that a private individual (and not necessarily only an official soundbox or officer) may bring charges against another person that such charges must be substantiated in just about way and that a false accuser suffers the penalty he sought for his intended victim.The epilogue emphasizes the king as military leader who brings peace to his subjects. It explicitly states that these laws were inscribed on a stela and publicly displayed in order to testify to Hammurabis righteous and just rule, to bring consolation to anyone seeking justice, and to serve as an example for future rulers. It seeks blessings for Hammurabi from his successors and the beneficiaries of his legacy it blesses them if they treat his Stella and laws with respect a nd it brings down the terrible curses of the great gods against any who would violate the caterpillar track Hammurabi opened or who would mutilate or desecrate his monument.The LH is known from numerous manu mitts, copied and recopied over the centuries in the scribal centers of Mesopotamia. The most complete and famous exemplar is the black stone stela, now housed in the Musee du Louvre, Paris, excavated in 1901-1902 by archaeological teams working in the ancient Elamite capital Susa. The stela, one of several that were erected in Babylonian cities, was interpreted as booty to Susa in the twelfth century B.C.E. by the Elamite ruler Shutruk-Nahhunte I, probably from Sippar, from which he also plundered monuments of other Mesopotamian rulers. The Louvre stela, which forms the basis of every edition of the Laws, is a pillar of diorite almost s purgeer and a half feet tall. On the top, covering almost one-third of the stela, is an imposing scene of the sun-god Shamash, god of justice , seated on his throne, and standing before him the king Hammurabi.The precise interpretation of this scene-that the god is dictating the laws to the king, or that the king is offering the laws to the god, or that the king is accepting the rod and ring that are the emblems of synagogue-building and sovereignty-is debated, but the iconographic message it communicated to sluice the illiterate must have been clear King Hammurabi and the god of justice Shamash together protect the people of Babylonia.The physically imposing Louvre stela, like other monumental inscriptions of its time, is inscribed in an archaic ductus and in the direction employed earlier, before the script was turned ninety degrees counterclockwise the visual impact of the script and the orientation, along with the archaizing, literary language used in the prologue and epilogue that frame the collection of rules, magnify the government agency of the composition. The columns of the text inscribed on the stela are wri tten in bands across the front and then the back of the circumference, beginning immediately below the throne of the god Shamash the prologue and epilogue each occupy about five columns, and the series of legal provisions occupies about forty-one columns.The changes during Old Babylonian period tough agriculture and landscapes, relevant old Babylonian records, socio-economic trends, local notables and officials and also notable women. The Tigris and Euphrates continued to be, the most actively shaping forces in ongoing, incessant processes of landscape formation and alteration. During late spring, floods, course avulsions were common through breaches in the river banks. Canal construction, whether for irrigation or for boat and barge bulk transport, has always been a significant contributing factor. alter overall pattern of canalized water withdrawals also contribute to second-order instabilities far downstream of particular instances of human intervention. Maps illustrating curre nt, serene evolving understandings of Tigris-Euphrates courses for the upper alluvium in Ur III Old Babylonian times can be found for the northern alluvium. At around the end of Ur III, there is good evidence of major westward movements of some Euphrates courses, and also of apparently substantial reductions in the ancient Idigna branch of the Tigris.The extension of much of the entire orbit of communications from state-controlled circles to wider, more heterogeneous, unofficial and private ones introduces the issue of agency. The agency probably does also induces a less narrowly focused interest in the products of routinized bureaucracy and opens the way to pursue ancient life-histories and to purpose their interactions systematically.Several major socioeconomic features characterize the Old Babylonian period. The first and most ominous, mainly in the northern alluvium, was the onset of a growing impoverishment of the general population of agriculturalists. Land was at first wi dely for sale there, but as disparities grew a stratum of relatively wealthy creditors made its appearance. As holdings became even more concentrated in the hands of large organizations throughout Babylonia, and as palace and temple interconnections with these private bodies were forcefully supported by the king,the trends seem to have converged. Van de Mieroop is surely right to management usthat a constant interaction between rural and urban populations must have existed, and an dislike between the two should not be assumed An informal and unattested, as well as a formal flow of goods and acts of reciprocity was vital to both. Meanwhile, the convenience and flexibility of transactions conducted in silver led to a withering of royal interest in active economic intervention. The palace no yearlong generally accepted payments in kind.A council of elders (botum) and popular assemblages (alum, karum, puIrum) became strong enough to have survived later even under Hammurabis overbeari ng control as community organs of self-government that coexisted with the state. Judges (who acted not each but collectively) played a part, as sometimes did royal representatives with consensual dicisions on peace and war. speckle men were the most active in business, some women collaborated with their husbands in real estate, slave and adoption transactions, and in jointly obtaining loans. Widows maintained some control of joint property after their husbands death, and sons were obliged to support them during their lifetime.