Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Performance Management †HR

Performance Management – HR Free Online Research Papers Performance Management Abstract The paper seeks to show that Effective Performance Management has become the core of Human Resources and is revitalizing, reenergizing and rejuvenating HR. The challenges faced by the present day organization are broadly discussed under the effectiveness of its performance management systems, which ultimately acts as a catalyst for employee engagements and their effective performance. This paper explores through its findings a new performance management system for improving overall organizational performance in general, through inventing new dimension for effective individual performances in specific. A framework is developed for the implementation of effective performance management in any organization. This paper is explicitly directed towards various parameters for energising human resources and serves interesting food for thought for the future managers dealing with performance management. Introduction Performance management, as pertaining to human resource management (HRM), is the process of delivering sustained success to organizations’ by improving capabilities of individuals and teams. It supports the philosophical principle that people and not capital provide organizations’ with a competitive advantage. However, performance management presents severe challenges in terms of practical implementation. Previous studies have largely failed to overcome many of the organizational constraints on its successful implementation. Overcoming barriers to change is especially important given their close relationship to the fulfilment of the psychological contract and related HRM systems (reward, development, etc.). The psychological contract construct consists of the existence of a â€Å"soft† set of expectations held by the employee, which have to be organized and managed. Within the relationship defined by these constructs, the employer and the employee inform, negotia te, monitor and then re-negotiate (or exit) the employment relationship. Thus, if the employee feels that a performance management approach breaches or violates their psychological contract expectations this can lead to an irrevocable breakdown in the employment relationship. Careful implementation of performance tools is therefore crucial to their success as contributors to organizational development. Performance Management as a core of HR Performance appraisals, performance reviews, appraisal forms; whatever we want to call them, let’s call them gone. As a standalone, a performance appraisal is universally disliked, after all how many people in any organization want to hear that they were less than perfect last year or how many managers want to face the argument and diminish morale that can result from the performance appraisal process. If the true goal of the performance appraisal is employee development and organizational improvement, we consider moving to effective performance management system. There has been a paradigm shift in the focus of HR from the early days where craftspeople organized guilds using unity to improve working conditions. Companies in today’s era focus on performance of employees which in turn helps the organization’s performance. No doubt that effective performance management has become a core of HR. Performance management to support organizational change The ultimate competitive asset of any organization is its people, thus organizations should develop employee competencies in a manner aligned with the organization’s business goals. This can be achieved through performance management systems, which act as both behavioural change tool and enabler of performance management system improved organizational performance through being instrumental in driving change. This can then be institutionalized through organizational policies, systems and structures. Performance management aims to emphasize and encourage desired and valued behaviours, thus is a key tool of communication and motivation within organizations seeking a competitive edge through strategic change and control. A visionary performance management then becomes a system for translating organizational intention and ambition into action and results, delivering a strategic goal, such as behavioural change. The system also brings focus to organisational change and development, particularly regarding competencies. When competency profiles support company goals, they become instrumental in developing the human resources necessary to deliver business goals. As a result, performance management system is an important tool for communicating priorities and for providing feedback to stimulate employees to meet the new expectations. Role and importance of effective performance management system Changing individual employee behaviour lies at the heart of organizational change programmes. This is because they ignore or violate established change psychology principles. Senior management can assume that because they are ready to pro-actively embrace change, their employees will be equally pro-active. However, imposing action on employees who are not prepared results in conflict. Typically, only 20 percent of employees in organizations are prepared to take positive action in response to change initiatives. More than 70 percent of new strategic initiatives fail for this reason.4 Thus, to be successful in shaping behaviour, performance management systems must achieve acceptance by those being â€Å"managed†. Modern organizations need to respond more effectively to changing external and internal environments, and organizational learning has become an important strategic focus. By anticipating and responding to changes in the environment through proactive learning interventions, some organizations are evolving into learning organizations. Nonetheless, the question of how to best transform behaviours through organizational learning and development remains. In reality, many change initiatives fail because either organizational culture is not ready to change at that time, or because they do not anticipate the impact of change on human systems. Initiatives in the latter category typically result in resistance and ultimately failure of the change initiative. As mentioned earlier, one method that organizations can use to affect employee competencies in a manner aligned with the organization’s change is to develop robust performance management systems. Analysis of performance management in terms of key result area KRA’s refer to general areas of outcomes or outputs for which a role is responsible. The KRA’s should be clearly defined. Once, the KRA’s are defined the individual can chart a process to achieve the KRA’s. KRA’s are also known as Key Work Output’s (KWO’s). An effective performance management system can facilitate change and innovation by both demonstrating their relationship with the overall strategy, and by supporting and monitoring the progress towards achieving the ultimate goal. It is therefore a crucially important tool for communicating priorities and for providing feedback on employees’ contributions towards achieving organizational goals. The purpose of the performance management system is to ensure that the work performed by employees is in accordance with the established objectives of the company. Employees should have a clear understanding of the quality and quantity of work expected from them and simultaneously receives ongoing information about how effectively they are standing as to the standards/benchmarks. Opportunities for employee development are identified and employee performance that does not meet standards is appropriately addressed. Moreover an operative performance management system consists of a process for communicating employee performance expectations, maintaining performance management dialogues and conducting annual performance appraisals. It is a procedure for encouraging and facilitating employee development and resolving performance pay disputes. Performance management system serves a strategic purpose because they help link employee activities with the organization’s mission and goals. It serves as a basis for employment decisions to promote outstanding performers, to train, transfer or discipline others, and to award merit increases. Data regarding employee performance can serve as criteria in HR research. They can help establish objectives for training programs. Finally, performance management system allows organizations to keep proper records to document HR decisions and legal requirements. A research conducted on BSE listed companies revealed the four key result areas that are critical for any performance management system and how each of these areas which has a number of dimensions, can be measured by key performance indicators. The four key result areas are as follows: I. Developing external relationship: The PMS should consider the three key performance indicators while considering employee performance to achieve the KRA of developing external relationship: firstly, contractual agreements i.e. managing policy and procedures for agreements which are implemented and reviewed annually and handling major research contracts renewed with stakeholders. Secondly, to create new strategic alliances such as its success can be measured by reviewing annually the number of competitor or collaborator analysis undertaken and new collaborations established and developed and finally to develop lines of communication such as quarterly reviewing, the visits made by the shareholders and information about research and education activities provided to stakeholders in written and electronic format. Communicating this Idea to employees and evaluating their commitment levels through structured parameters will help in achieving organisational objective. II. Building organisational capabilities: Similarly, PMS has to also consider dimensions such as to attract and retain the right people i.e. to review annually so as to identify and resolve gaps in the performance of the leaders and provide and implement strategic, analysis based advice performance management system for all staffs. Secondly, the system fosters a value driven culture which includes code of conduct developed around share values, rewarding employees and implementing a recognition system to reinforce culture. Finally, it creates a supportive structure and systems which includes implementation of most effective organisational structure, reviewing annually the policies, systems and procedural documented. This KRA will finally contribute towards enhancing skill based performance for quality work. III. Taking a selective and focussed approach: The PMS should check the employee’s work focus which can be measured by reviewing annually the service level agreements and how these agreements are benefiting the key stakeholders. In the light of this KRA the employees are able to meet up to the expectations of their job description and accordingly see and evaluate their respective performances as a transparent system. IV. Maintaining quality research, service and education output: The last key area helps to ensure relevance to the organisation’s mission by consistent work with strategic direction and available skills. Performance management can be measured through milestones achieved. Also, it measures work impact which can in turn be measured through new knowledge that is being published or presented, identification of changes to policies or practices and finally customer satisfaction which can be measured with the help of surveys conducted. This will contribute towards managing talent in the organisation and exploring opportunities for potential employees and also for succession planning. BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTING EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS7:- 1. Organizational Barriers – Variations in performance within systems may be due to common causes or special causes. Common causes are faults that are built into the system due to prior decisions, defects in materials, flaws in the design of the system, or some other managerial shortcoming. Special causes are those attributable to a particular event, a particular operator, or a subgroup within the system. 2. Political Barriers – Political considerations are organizational facts of life. Appraisals take place in an organisational environment that is anything but completely rational, straight-forward, or dispassionate. It appears that achieving accuracy in appraisal is less important to managers than motivating and rewarding their subordinates. Many managers will not allow excessively accurate ratings to cause problems for themselves. 3. Interpersonal Barriers – Interpersonal barriers also may hinder the performance management process. Because of a lack of communication, employees may think they are being judged according to one set of standards when their superiors actually use different ones. Furthermore, supervisors often delay or resist making face-to-face appraisals. Rather than confronting substandard performers with low ratings, negative feed-back, and below-average salary increases, supervisors often find it easier to â€Å"damn with faint praise† by giving average or above-average salary ratings to inferior performers. Performance Managers Performance managers can improve on a performance measurement system, as objectively as possible, upon discussion with the line managers. They need to clearly define the role for each position in the organisation, and communicate the positions to the new entrants respectively. They may formulate a reward system that is in tune with industry standards, and companys retention and performance strategy, and take local and overseas opportunities as factors of consideration. As facilitators of training and development activities, they may identify their teams’ individual training needs which may involve technological, behavioural or cross-cultural contents. As career counsellors, they may develop different career paths technical or managerial, and attempt to satisfy the needs of the employees. â€Å"The Indian IT industry has set an exceptionally high standard with regard to workplace and employee practices. With the continued growth and rapid evolution of the industry, as well as the changing aspirations of its young workforce, IT companies small or large will have to constantly look at innovation to excel as employers,† said Kiran Karnik, president, Nasscom, in a statement. Small and medium-sized IT and business outsourcing companies are constantly looking at adopting best practices such as innovative performance appraisal system, individual career development programmes and recreational activities, to make themselves more attractive to employees in a fiercely competitive market, says a survey on exciting emerging companies in India conducted by the National Association of Software and Services Companies (Nasscom). At the BPO company, which has seen its attrition rate coming down to 8% from 28% last year, employees are encouraged to post their feedback anonymously, which is taken up by teams that can address it the best. By creatively designing the total reward package towards more short-term incentives and benefits, and linking the package to performance, companies can ensure that they get higher productivity without hefty increases in salary costs and minimise attrition costs at the same time. The general parameters for the measurement of employees’ performance in BPO’s are: Speed i.e. process performance, Accuracy and Productivity of each process, Although the measuring parameters are different for employees at different level, but the general classification of the above mentioned parameters for â€Å"Customer care Executives† and â€Å"Team leaders† are as follows: Average Call Value (the sales made or the revenue collected etc.) Time and cost per call Average Handling Time (talk time and after call wrap up) Adherence to Schedule (availability to take calls etc.) Percentage of abandoned calls Discipline Attendance According to a recent survey – â€Å"The Pay for Performance can be as much as 22% of the salary.† Thus, good performance is highly rated in the IT and BPO industry. Recommendations for effective performance management:- 1) Senior management should show commitment – The process of performance management within the company lacks participation and benefits none without active senior management support and leadership. 2) Employee resistance should be kept minimal – PMS is made for aligning the goals of employee and the organization, thus, effective performance management system is only going to be effective when employees understand the importance of performance management system in their own careers. 3) Training infrastructure and capacity building programs – Surprisingly, given the level of resources provided for the rollout of the new performance management system, employees at every level of the organization appear to lack the necessary knowledge and skills required for their particular contribution to the system. 4) Benchmarking – Effective performance management can only be sustained when the performances are compared with the standards set in the organization and as this is done on a continuous basis, this leads to improvement of performance and brings it closer to the benchmark set by the organization. 5) 3rd axis measurement – If performance is to be measured on a two axis system, organizational goals and employee performance for these goals respectively, then a 3rd axis also needs to be measured which is employee’s personal goals, because then only performance can be measured in true terms. Conclusion: We conclude the research by stressing effective performance management is a key tool of communication and motivation within organizations seeking a competitive edge through strategic change and control. The framework for performance management system design has its core element as improving individual performance in accordance with the organization’s performance, keeping in mind employee’s personal goals. Overcoming barriers to change through winning the psychological battle of employee involvement by effective performance and evaluating parameters has become the need of the hour. The KRA’s that determine the effectiveness of a PMS are, Developing external relationship Communicating this Idea to employees and evaluating their commitment levels through structured parameters will help in achieving organisational objective. Building organisational capabilities This KRA contributes in enhancing skill based performance for quality work. Taking a selective and focussed approach and maintaining quality research – This KRA provides a transparent system for evaluation of employee performance in terms of job description. Service and education output – This KRA contributes in managing talent in the organization. The afore said KRAs as discussed in full length are only suggestive in nature .The final implementation may be based on some primary research over the aforesaid parameters so that its contribution may ultimately result into epitomizing performance for establishing a cognitive environment. References:- 1. think.exist.com 2. Mei-I Cheng De Montfort University, Implementing a new performance management system within a project-based organization -A case study. 3. about.com/humanresources. 4. trackers.in 6. Wayne F. Cascio and Herman Aguinis, Applied Psychology in Human Resources Management – sixth edition/ (CH-5) P-85 7. ibm.com/services/strategy/industries/chemicals. 8. pwc.com/ng/PwC Nigeria – HRS brochure. Research Papers on Performance Management - HRThe Project Managment Office SystemOpen Architechture a white paperIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaDefinition of Export QuotasPETSTEL analysis of IndiaStandardized TestingComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever Product

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Decimal Degrees Versus Minutes, Seconds

Decimal Degrees Versus Minutes, Seconds When you hear about metric measurements, usually you are bombarded with terms denoting length, height or volume, depending on your industry. Outside of formal schooling, you almost never hear about the geographical side of measurement - specifically, those ever-present invisible lines of latitude and longitude. This article will explore how some metrics are shown in geographical terms, who uses traditional Degrees/Minutes/Seconds, and what the future may hold.   A Brief History of U.S. Metrics Originating in France in the 1790s, the metric system (officially known as SI, short for Le Systeme International dUnites) grew in popularity due to increasing global commerce. Through trade with Europe, the U.S. awareness of metrics trickled into existence, eventually prompting Congress to permit its use in 1866. It was legal but voluntary. The first official legislation concerning metric conversion was passed by Congress in 1974, adding metrics to our elementary and secondary education curriculum. One year later (in 1975), Congress passed the Metric Conversion Act, declaring that the U.S. federal government should use metrics as its preferred measurement system, as evidenced by a box sitting in my cubicle whose labeling instructions tell of letters that must be 3.81cm (1.5 inches) high. The nutritional information on any package of food is also a good example, showing grams (instead of ounces) of fat, carbs, vitamins, etc. Ever since its beginnings, the U.S. government has striven to promote and stabilize metrication, with limited results: mostly those in the sciences, military, engineering, manufacturing and other technical fields use the metric system. The general public, however, continues to show comparatively overwhelming disinterest in adopting grams, litres, and meters over the traditional ounces, quarts, and feet. The United States is the only remaining industrialized country whose general population does not use metrics as its primary measurement system. Metrics and Geography Despite the average American laypersons apathy for metrics, those of us who use geographic coordinates on a daily basis see plenty of evidence that decimals are out in full force. On any given day Ill see a few handfuls of engineering site surveys (and sometimes other data) come across my desk, 98% of which have a decimal somewhere in the latitude or longitude. As technology has developed over the years, allowing more accurate measurements, the number of ways that we geography people get to read those coordinates has increased. The three most popular types of Lat/Lon displays are: Traditional degrees/minutes/seconds (D/M/S), usually with decimal secondsDegrees with decimal minutes, no secondsDecimal degrees, no minutes, no seconds Doing the Math No matter how you choose to display them, any converted coordinates will get you to the same point, basically - its simply a matter of preference. If you are one of those people who grew up learning only D/M/S like me, you might break into a cold sweat the first time you see the second or third decimal variations (bulleted above), if only from the memory of your high school algebra classes. But fear not, for there are a boatload of conversion programs and websites that will do the math for you. A majority of these sites convert between D/M/S and decimal degrees, leaving out the less popular but still available decimal minutes. There are other sites for those who dont mind/enjoy algebra, or who are naturally intrepid souls and simply wish to brave the longhand algebraic equations. If you are ready to break out the Texas Instruments calculator and go for it, you might try the Montana Natural Resource Information System, which shows conversion equation examples, but also has an automatic converter.   Finally Rubbing Off? Within the past few years, more and more Americans seem to be warming up to the concept and have begun using decimals in their everyday lives. Certainly, the growing number of metric labels on many foods, drinks, health care, cleaners and other various products are clear indicators that the average American consumer should probably start learning to accept decimal numbers. This goes for geography as well. GPS unit sales to the nonmilitary population are on the rise and most (if not all) GPS units display a location using decimals. One can expect hiking, boating, driving, or any other type of navigational information to be in this same format, no matter the scale, map projection, or elevation. As the rest of the world moves forward with metric standards, the United States government will most likely feel more pressure (especially from Europe) to go totally metric for global trading purposes. Once the population finally accepts that change is coming, decimal numbers will be even more abundant and it will filter down through every aspect of American industry. Don't Panic For those hikers, boaters, drivers, orienteering students, land surveyors and others who may be used to using only D/M/S, dont worry. The conversions are out there, and its easier than you think to get results from them. Latitude and longitude lines certainly arent going anywhere - well always have those to rely on - so for now, get ready and warm up that calculator! Len Morse earned a B.S. in Geography from Towson State University and has been with the FAA for approximately 14.61 years.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Honey & Honey Products Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Honey & Honey Products - Research Paper Example The popularly used model is AIDA model, which includes four stages, namely awareness, interest, desire and action. These four stages occur when a consumer is confronted with some form of advertisement. Honey and Honey Products are basically in their introduction phase. This provides a good opportunity for the honey company to make a long-term impression on their consumer’s mind through positive brand building activities. Advertising and media relations will focus on building awareness and long-term relationship with consumers, while sales promotions and direct marketing activities will help in generating sales and revenues. Advertisement will consist of print, television and outdoor advertisements. Print advertisement will be included in popular cooking and home magazines, targeting women. Television advertisement will include a 30 second ad, which will be featured during prime time on popular local channels. The ad will be a combination of testimonies as well as information, where features and USP of the products and brand will be discussed. Outdoor advertisement includes billboards and flyers of Honey and Honey Products at different strategic places, such as, malls, shopping centres, food market as well as health and fitness gyms. According to the diagram above, it is evident that advertisement plays a significant role during initial stages of consumer decision making, i.e. awareness and interest. Also, good and effective advertisement will help in establishing positive brand equity and brand recognition. Public relation tools will be used for the publicity of new products. It will help in placing products among target consumers through press and media, thereby increasing consumer awareness and knowledge about Honey and Honey Products. Another strategy adopted by the company is customer satisfaction through 24x7 phone lines. This will not only solve

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Equal Rights Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Equal Rights - Essay Example Was there really no means for him not to emulate Eve given the fact that he loved her? But we are no longer living on biblical times. The apple had been swallowed and the Garden of Eden is but a distant memory of our apparent disobedience from the commands of God in his paradise. An amendment pertaining to equal rights amendment, specifically, on gender equality has been long overdue. The drafted 1972 Equal Rights Amendment, with all its content and significance duly brought to notice the need for this statute. The clamor not only by various organizations that advocate its ratification can be viewed as nothing less than the legislative’s duty to bring about justice especially in this ever-changing society. It is by virtue of evolution that such changes are inherent to us as a nation. The righteousness of our democracy yields the empowerment of the people not only to be theoretical but must be realized in such a manner that it is in constant concurrence with the applicability of the manner of the times we live in. No longer are we, regardless of gender, mere audience to our own existence. The intent for which this amendment is based on gives supremacy to the need for substantial change that must be implemented. This conflict in the Constitution, the supreme law of the land, must be addressed with expediency. Over a century preceding the adoption of the Equal Protection Clause, it has yet to be given its ‘teeth’ so to speak in the decisions of the Supreme Court. In a 1983 law from the state of Illinois which prohibits women from practicing law, the court ruled that it was in accordance with the Constitution as such that no law was violated in its implementation. Furthermore, it had become more apparent that the courts cite in its opinion the prevalence of the belief that man should be the protector of women and that a woman’s primary duty not only in the eyes of the family but of the law, is to be a good wife and mother as such is the law of the

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Operations Management Essay Example for Free

Operations Management Essay Garland Company is a company known for its excellence when it comes to manufacturing product representing various combinations of reinforcement ma materials, surfacing materials, polymer components, and specific additives such as fire retardants, fibers, and fillers. The company originated in from US in 1895 and to extended distribution in Europe, Garland Company established their branch in Gloucester, England in 2001 called Garland Company U. K. , Ltd. For Garland Company, the best formula for future success is the combination of solid culture, traditional values, high integrity plus the product, strategies, service and technologies. That is why the employees of Garland understand clearly their importance in the company. The Garland’s ISO certification for research and development started in 1998 and up to now they still live up to that quality standard by producing quality products. Every aspect of Garland manufacturing is monitored through ISO 9000 certification processes, which include regular independent audits to ensure predictable, consistent adherence to world-class standards of quality. That is why the company’s products are backed-up with some of the strongest warranties in the commercial and industrial roofing and building maintenance industries.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Walker Percys The Moviegoer Essay -- essays research papers

In the novel, The Moviegoer, by Walker Percy, the narrator, Jack Bolling, believes that everyone has a role to play and that their happiness is predicated upon how well they play their given role. He also believes that people get trapped in â€Å"everydayness† and become â€Å"dead†. Jack Bolling’s decision to marry Kate Cutrer is partly based on these beliefs of his, but it is also based upon the discovery that Sharon is engaged herself. Kate Cutrer has some mental problems of her own, and, being Jack Bolling’s cousin, he learns about them and observes them. As he goes throughout his days, Jack Bolling tries to avoid the typical roles of people; the â€Å"everydayness†. When he thinks about falling into a pattern, it makes him physically sick. He is afraid to be normal, to be just another person in the world. It seems as if he wants to â€Å"insert himself into the world†, but he is afraid to because he also wants to play the roles that people want him to play, such as his aunt. His aunt thinks that she knows him pretty well, but discovers in the end that she didn’t know him at all because he was always trying to be what she wanted him to be. Kate Cutrer, on the other hand, wants to be someone who just blends in with all around her and doesn’t have to worry about making herself known or standing out. But with her problems, she can’t seem to do that. One reason for Jack Bollin g and Kate Cutrer getting married could be that the other is what they secretly desire to be themselves. When Kate Cut... Walker Percys The Moviegoer Essay -- essays research papers In the novel, The Moviegoer, by Walker Percy, the narrator, Jack Bolling, believes that everyone has a role to play and that their happiness is predicated upon how well they play their given role. He also believes that people get trapped in â€Å"everydayness† and become â€Å"dead†. Jack Bolling’s decision to marry Kate Cutrer is partly based on these beliefs of his, but it is also based upon the discovery that Sharon is engaged herself. Kate Cutrer has some mental problems of her own, and, being Jack Bolling’s cousin, he learns about them and observes them. As he goes throughout his days, Jack Bolling tries to avoid the typical roles of people; the â€Å"everydayness†. When he thinks about falling into a pattern, it makes him physically sick. He is afraid to be normal, to be just another person in the world. It seems as if he wants to â€Å"insert himself into the world†, but he is afraid to because he also wants to play the roles that people want him to play, such as his aunt. His aunt thinks that she knows him pretty well, but discovers in the end that she didn’t know him at all because he was always trying to be what she wanted him to be. Kate Cutrer, on the other hand, wants to be someone who just blends in with all around her and doesn’t have to worry about making herself known or standing out. But with her problems, she can’t seem to do that. One reason for Jack Bollin g and Kate Cutrer getting married could be that the other is what they secretly desire to be themselves. When Kate Cut...

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Monopoly questions and answers Essay

In a monopoly, and at the expense of supply in the market one entity to control and demand, and the degree of the price offered and the control exercised by the institution or individual is greater. Predatory pricing. This feature of the advantages of a monopoly consumers. These are short term market gains when prices dropped to meet the demand of rare product. Suppliers and consumers directly benefit from an attempt to monopolize the company to increase the sale of business marketing. Price flexibility With regard to the demand for the product or service offered by the company monopoly or individual, and is dictated by the price elasticity of the ratio of the absolute value of the increase in prices and demand in the market. Lack of creativity At the expense of absolute control of the market, and monopolies display a tendency to lose efficiency over a period of time. With one product lifetime, and innovative design and marketing techniques rear seat. Lack of competition. When the market was designed to serve the monopoly and the lack of commercial competition or the lack of goods and viable products shrinking the scope of â€Å"perfect competition. † 2-How monopoly arises Monopoly arises in a variety of circumstances: there are types of goods and a service does not accept by its nature, or not in the public interest to multiple producers, it’s called natural monopolies, for example: to provide the city with water, electricity, or the trains running between two countries. Often assume the state or municipal authorities to manage these services, or to grant a concession to a private company, subject to strict control. Monopoly may arise in an industry, the growth of a project, and it seized on other projects. Or as a result of grab or merge of small projects in the large-scale project, Monopoly May arise due to agreement between the projects owners in a particular industry to determine the price, or divide markets among themselves, known as (cartel), and in this case there are a number of producers, such agreement among them makes them a monopoly power. Most of the countries have been working on the subject of monopolies control. 3-How we can regulate the monopoly Pricing at marginal cost Economists have for many decades argued the benefits of setting public utility tariffs on the basis of marginal cost. This view is expressed in many classic economic texts on regulation. Price discrimination One common objection to marginal-cost pricing is that, in the presence of economies of scale, a simple linear price equal to marginal cost would not allow the regulated firm to recover sufficient revenue to cover its total costs. Ramsey pricing In those cases where the regulator is unable to set the marginal price for each service equal to its marginal cost, economic theory still places central emphasis on reducing the deadweight loss. Incremental cost The deadweight-loss hypothesis has a hard time explaining why regulators fail to pursue policies which are efficient under the conventional economic theory, such as Ramsey pricing. Price / service stability. Another puzzle for the conventional economic approach to regulation is the heavy emphasis on price stability. There is a sizeable amount of evidence that price and service stability is one of the primary concerns of regulators. Alternative regulation †¢ To encourage the productive efficiency of the monopolist. †¢ To eliminate the incentive to waste resources seeking to obtain a position of monopoly. †¢ To protect the sunk investment of the monopolist 4-Give some examples of monopoly type of monopolyThe main characteristicexamples. NaturalAccess to rare and not easily reproducible elements of productionMonopolies operating in the sphere of production is mineral deposits of strategic importance for the national economy technologicalFeature production: in this technology is not enough consumer demand to support many competitive firmsEnterprise for the production of specific goods, such as infrastructure for the operation of natural monopolies. GeographicCompetition due to the non-rationality of the territorial limited due to the effect of geographic barriersPublic transport companies infrastructureInfrastructure network – a network that supply products between distant from each other (both in space and in time), economic agentsBackbone enterprises in energy, rail transport , heat, gas and water supply patentUsing a unique patented technologyNatural monopolies are producing high-tech products, such as medicine StateMarkets related to the exclusive jurisdiction of the stateDefense, aeronautics administrative commandOperating in a command systemNatural monopolies in the administrative-command system.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Computer Uses Essay

Today’s technology has changed the view of world. Among them computers are one of the best creations of the technology. Computers are the best closer look of new era’s technology. Computers are very useful in our routine life as a source of entertainment, as a medium of education and as a one way of business. First, Computers play a role of entertainer in our life. We can play a game on the computer. We can also download and upload games from the internet or from the game DVD. We can also enjoy music and movies too. For example, If you want to see movies, you can see it online through internet or you can see movie on DVD. Same way, if you like to listen music, you can upload songs from the CD or you get songs from online from the particular music sites. There are so many sites available on the internet like youtube.com, videoshare.com for the movies and video songs. This way we can get relaxation by using computers. Second is as a source of an education. Computers are the best companion for the students. Computer has many kind of services which can be helpful for the students for instance microsoft word, power point, HTML, java, etc. We can use microsoft word for writing purpose, we can use power point to make slide shows. Moreover, there are so many study sites available for online tutoring. It is really a very easy and cheap way for the study. You can find your any type of study related question to study online. In short, computers make study easy and interesting. Last but not least use of computer is as a medium of e-commerce. Today in our busy world people avoid to waste time for their shopping. Now a day consumers like to buy and sell their stuff online. Best example of online shopping is e-bay. On this particular site you get all necessary things like books, electric and electronic items, clothes etc. Moreover from e-bay, you can sell stuff too. I particularly love this site.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Gap Labor Problems Essays

Gap Labor Problems Essays Gap Labor Problems Essay Gap Labor Problems Essay Major ethical issues: Gap Inc. is a multinational casual apparel chain retail store with â€Å"3000 supplier in 50 different countries†. The manufacturing environment, human right treatment and labour policy vary substantially among suppliers from substandard to appalling. Gap Inc. ’s customer were deceived to assume the products were â€Å"Made in USA†, under United States labour standards and human right policies; whilst, manufacturing factories were located in Saipan –a U. S. protectorate in Southeast Asia. Although Saipan conformed to majority of U. S labour laws, it was exempt from federal minimum wage laws. Furthermore, the majority of the manufacturing factories located in Saipan are foreign companies from such countries as china and Thailand. Workers’ rights have been systematically violated in supplier factories in other localities such as Central America, Thailand, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Mexico. Workers were misled into entering contracts, advertised as a well-paying job in USA. In fact the jobs were located in Saipan and paid $3 an hour, moreover, the contract required workers to pay a hefty recruiting fee. Significant human right violation has been committed by suppliers contracted by Gap and other major retailer. Basic human right violation occurred ranging from subjection to sexual harassment, lack of clean water, not being able to use bathrooms and harsh and cruel punishment as a method of discipline. Furthermore, employees were forced into consenting to a contract prohibiting marital arrangements and political or religious activities. Fair labour policy violation came to light upon the employment of minors to fulltime positions. : Additionally, employees failed to pay for overtime. Rampant harassment used as anti-union initiatives. Pregnancy test was required prior to employment. Underage teens have been hired as young as 13 with full time schedule and minimum pay. In one instance a 14 years old girl died of exhaustion after working several 14 hours a day shifts. As a part of their employment contract, employees were forbidden to ask for salary increase, nor participate in union activity or look for alternative jobs. In some instances, workers were given high quota of production and if they failed to meet the demand they wouldn’t receive payment or were forced to perform â€Å"volunteer unpaid time†. Safety was a major issue in the working environment. For instant, teenage workers in China worked in a room that reeked of toxic fumes; some factories had more than a 1000 citations. Dwelling provided for workers was insanitary with exposed electrical wiring. American union of apparel worker claimed, they weren’t able to compete with these foreign suppliers due to these low cost sweatshops. Gap denied such accusations by shifting the accountability to the suppliers, and insisting that resolution of worker plight is the responsibility of their employers who employed them and not of Gap. Utilitarianism Perspective Utilitarianism is a consequence based theory which suggests; those actions are permissible that create the most overall good (utility) for the greatest number of people ( audience). Utilitarianism is the greatest advocate of free market and globalization. Free market encourages efficiency in the market, which pave the way to optimal distribution of cost and benefit in a society. Issues arising from unfair labour policies, human right conditions and hazardous working environment provided in the case is argued in such way that society in these underdeveloped –sometime developing- countries would benefit greatly from employment, economic prosperity and increase standard of livings in the long run. Concurrently, multinational companies in societies in which such products are marketed will benefit from lower costs, attaining competitive advantage in the global market. The ripple effects of their competitive advantage will reach their employees, community in which they operate, government and shareholders. Moreover, lower cost leads to more efficiency which translates into lower prices for consumers. Based on this argument, the complete chain of stakeholders including employees, employers and end users would benefit overall. Conversely, many would object to the notion emphasized by utilitarianism, based on the fact that the pursuit of self-interest tends to lead to injustice. The utility of higher bottom line for Gap Inc. will adversely affect workers and their society by subjecting them to inhumane treatments. There is also first generation problem that arise from such practices. By the time market correct itself and provide better and safer working condition for these workers, a whole generation of worker’s human and labour rights have been sacrificed. Many of these businesses have tremendous lobbying power that could slow down or prevent any initiative targeted to correct aforementioned conditions. The objective and tangible aspect of positive views of utilitarianism such as higher employment and bottom line are measurable as oppose to endangering human lives and impairment of their fundamental rights. Deontological Perspective Deontological ethics identifies the ethical duty to treat everyone with respect for their autonomy and rationality. People have fundamental interest that overrides the collective will and overall utility. Such interest is protected under Deontological ethics, hence, others have the duty to comply and respect these individual rights. Deontological theory also promotes free market. The Gap Inc. ’s corporate executive, Mr. Drexler has a duty to stockholders to conduct business in accordance with their interest. The Gap Inc. is a private entity, thus free to pursue the best interest of The Gap Inc. Contracting suppliers in Saipan leads to drastically lower cost of goods sold which in turn maximizes profit and attains higher return on investment. This is fundamentally, the best interest of for-profit organizations. Deontological argument fails to notice that property rights are not unconditional; centuries of legal precedent transpired from case laws and regulatory legislations. Oversee regulations serve to expound wide range of managerial obligations to safeguard rights of employees. Gap owners’ property right shall not be used in a way that will infringe the basic rights of the workers. Such argument will allow employers to treat the workers as mean to the end of stockholders. Treating workers as rational autonomous beings is at the cornerstone of demonological theory. Current conditions bear a resemblance to treating workers as objects, merely a manufacturing machine with no rights. Furthermore, in a democratic and sensible society mangers take â€Å"positive rights† into considerations. Positive rights are those that managers have the duty to provide like safe working condition, fair treatment, respect and intention to provide better living standards. Gap Response Assessment According the piece Gap was one of the first companies to adapt a code of ethics for its factories. In response to rising criticism and precedents facing the company and its industry competitors, Gap updated its code of conduct. This was a pre-emptive initiative to battle sweatshops conditions in the factories. There were also guidelines for safety and labour practices. According to the article codes of conduct adopted by Gap, suppliers must avoid discriminatory conducts, forced labour, prison labour, child employment bellow the age of 14, and promote respect for union efforts, provide safe working environment and pay legal minimum wages. Additionally, the code of conducts promoted respect for local environment regulation and obedience of the local laws and regulations. These guidelines resemble a minimalism approach. According to Tom Donaldson, business is set to follow economic interests to the extent as to follow minimum moral rights set forth by UN declaration of universal human rights. Hence, the Gap should merely acknowledge the negative duties not to cause harm. Many of the aforementioned nations have proper laws and regulation in placed. However, there is the lack of administrative enforcement. Another aspect of Gap’s response is how they handled criticism and litigations. First criticism arrived from an article published in The New York Times by columnist Bob Herbert. The article illustrated the plight of hundreds of thousands of young workers in Central America who made apparel for Gap under conditions which violated their human rights, rights of collective bargaining and furthermore, subjection to torture, cruel and unreasonable punishments. In several other instances labour activists staged demonstration that illustrated the conditions of workers in Saipan and other locations. The activists demanded Gap stand responsible for the remorseful working conditions and to intervene in creating better working environment in those factories. Additionally, they requested an independent audit report to be conducted of the factories to portray an accurate picture of the employment conditions. Initially, Gap resisted such demands and criticism by relying upon their own monitory reports and account from supplier owners. Furthermore, since the workers employed by such factories are not direct labor of Gap, responsibility, if any, rests with the subcontractors. Gap also repelled the call for independent inquiry in order to control the flow of information to their consumers. On January 1999, a lawsuit was brought against the Gap Inc. on behalf of 50,000 factory workers at Saipan. The lawsuit accused Gap and 25 other retailer of violation of workers’ human rights. Moreover, the lawsuit accused Gap of deception of consumers into believing the products offered by the company were â€Å"Made in USA† under United States labour and minimum wage laws, even though they were made in Saipan under inhumane, unsafe conditions with total lack of regulations. Additionally, the lawsuit revealed that the workers were misled into entering contracts that advertised a well-paying job in USA. In fact the jobs were in Saipan and paid $3 an hour and made employees promise to pay a hefty recruiting fee. Sadly, employees were further required to surrender their basic human and employee rights. Gap refused to settle the lawsuit outside the courtroom unlike the other defendant named in the lawsuit, on the basis that settlement would express admission to guilt. Finally, Gap updated their codes of conduct to address the issues brought up by the lawsuit regarding the foreign employment practices. They also agreed to pay $20 million to compensate the workers in Saipan factories. On May 2004, in face of all the criticism and lawsuits targeted towards the company, the Gap Inc. ’s new management accepted to publish a public report of the conditions and employment practices in their oversee supplier factories. The company’s decision was praised by many labour activists for being a step forward in ethical embracement. The company prioritized respect for union formation. Some argued workers lack the knowledge of their fundamental rights due to cultural and ethical relativism, so they become victims of a so called well-run prisons† Recommendations In terms of the Gap Inc. ’s appropriateness of responses to the aforementioned issues, it must be noted that creation of Gap’s code of ethical conduct was a proactive tool to battle sweatshop conditions. Especially for the fact that it wasn’t a defensive response, rather a pre-emptive move to avoid catastrophic precedents. Lack of proper monitoring and enforcement of such codes of conduct seemed rather peculiar. Gap should have conducted audits with more frequency and served to eliminate such adverse problems before they become to light. Employees are rational, autonomous individuals, and thus have certain basic needs and interests. According to Maslows hierarchy of needs, human beings basic needs rank from Physiological, Safety, Belonging, Esteem to self-actualization. Physiological needs are required for human survival. Assuming food, shelter and clothing were provided, humans need for sexual companionship and procreation is a part of such needs; in this case marriage was frowned upon by employer –suppliers- by means of contract. Safety needs is both most critical and lacking in this case. Harsh punishments abolished workers personal safety. Manipulative and deceitful contract terms endangered workers property rights and freedom. Health and safety is vital to human wellbeing and freedom. Such rights or needs should be protected from being infringed upon and traded away in the process of bargaining. Moving up any further in level of need is redundant since workers most basic need must be met before a higher level of needs is achieved. Without the attainment of lower level needs, sense of belongingness and self-esteem are inexistent and self-actualization will never be met. Corporation are held morally and socially accountable for their actions and how they fit into the fabric of a society. Diffusion of responsibility occurs when there are a number of participants in the arrangement and responsibility is not clearly assigned or enforced. Gap holds the supplier responsible for the affair of workers. Suppliers are regulated by government and laws, which in many cases are never upheld. Gap is the ultimate beneficiary of this supply chain and must be responsible for the conduct of suppliers. According to Carroll’s Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility, there are four level of responsibility for Gap Inc. as a corporation. First it must be economical; this is the commercial vitality of any for-profit organization and is necessary to the survival of the company and is private property of the stockholders. Any initiative employed toward resolving these ethical issues seem to have economic significance. As mentioned in the case consumers are more likely to avoid shopping from a brand associated with sweatshops. Second level is the Legal responsibility. Gap must obey the law applied both in US and in the local laws in which these factories are located and operated. It must be noted that although many of the countries aforementioned have fairly appropriate regulation in place, lack of social development prevent such governments from enforcing these regulations. The Gap Inc. or any of its suppliers must not take advantage of weak administration. Third level is the ethical responsibility. As mentioned previously, Gap is the ultimate beneficiary of this supply chain. Although suppliers are directly in charge of these workers, Gap holds an immense power to prevent such unethical behaviour from occurring. Therefore, the company must resiliently monitor the conduct of its suppliers, given the high risk of non-compliance. Protection of human rights rank at the top of issues requiring urgent resolution. No physical or psychological trauma should be endured by workers. Subsequently, health and safety in factories must be provided as it is essential to the wellbeing of workers. Employment rights and regulation must be fully upheld and respected. Subjection to deceptive advertisement must be eliminated to both workers and end users. End users must know the condition of factories in which the merchandise is being manufactured. Workers must not be deceived into contract with dissipated terms. A fair wage should be paid to workers which is comparable not essentially equal to workers in United States. The aforementioned processors will to address apparel worker concern in US who are concerned with uncompetitive low wages paid in Saipan and or other developed countries. Forth and finally, the Gap Inc. has philanthropic social responsibilities. As aforesaid Gap uses minimalism approach in which it acknowledges only â€Å"negative duties† not to cause harm. They should alter their perception by seeking maximalist approach. The Gap Inc. holds tremendous influence, power, and resources which could be used towards providing positive benefits and promotes better conditions in the community where they directly or indirectly operate. The ripple effect of such practices will repair the company’s damaged identity and image.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue and Church Architecture

Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue and Church Architecture American architect Bertram G. Goodhue (born April 28, 1869 in Pomfret, Connecticut) was an innovator who combined Gothic and Hispanic designs with modern ideas. He revolutionized church (ecclesiastical) architecture by reawakening Medieval traditions, with a focus on modern detailing within traditional designs. His fanciful Spanish Churrigueresque buildings for the Panama-California Exposition brought new energy to Spanish Colonial Revival architecture in the United States. Later in his career, Goodhue moved beyond Gothic ornamentation to explore classical forms, designing landmark buildings such as the Nebraska State Capitol. Goodhue could not afford to attend college, although he was a known sketch artist throughout the New Haven military academy he attended. Instead of college, at age fifteen he went to work in the New York office of Renwick, Aspinwall and Russell. For six years he studied under James Renwick, Jr., architect of many public buildings and churches, including Smithsonian Institute Castle in Washington, DC and Grace Church and St. Patricks Cathedral in New York City. In 1891, he joined Ralph Adams Cram and Charles Wentworth in a Boston partnership that later became Cram, Goodhue Ferguson. The firm opened a branch in New York City, which by 1913 Goodhue had made his own. Although Goodhues early works were noted for their high Gothic style, he later adopted a Romanesque style. By the end of his career, his work tended toward simple, classical lines. The Los Angeles Central Library, completed after his death, has elements of Art Deco design. Today Goodhue is considered an American modernist. Youve probably seen his work, without knowing it. Goodhue is said to have invented two font styles: Merrymount, designed for the Merrymount Press of Boston; and Cheltenham, designed for the Cheltenham Press in New York City; Cheltenham was adopted by The New York Times for their headline typeface and by the L.L. Bean company for their distinctive logo. Goodhue died in New York City on April 23, 1924. Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue Architectural Drawings and Papers, 1882-1980 are archived at Columbia University in New York. Selected Projects Attributed to Goodhue: Bertram G. Goodhue was a known collaborator in architectural projects. The 1910 Cadet Chapel at West Point in New York is attributed to Cram, Goodhue, and Ferguson, although Goodhue was the lead architect. Projects from his own New York City office took advantage of a growing United States market of public and ecclesiastic architecture from coast to coast. His most notable works include the First Baptist Church (1912) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the Church of the Intercession (1915) and St. Bartholomews Church (St. Barts, 1918) both in New York City. California works include the 1915 Panama-California Exposition Buildings in San Diego, the 1926 Los Angeles Central Public Library (LAPL), and the 1924Â  Master Plan for the California Institute of Technology. In between New York and California look for the 1922 Nebraska State Capitol building in Lincoln, Nebraska and the 1924 National Academy of Sciences Building in Washington, DC. In the Words of Goodhue: ...the trouble in our houses today is that we want everything to seem rich and extravagant- we want money, and then we want to show it in our surroundings. - from The New York Times, A Renowned Architects Home of His Own by Christopher Gray, January 22, 2006 [accessed April 8, 2014] Learn More: Bertram Goodhue: His Life And Residential Architecture by Romy Wyllie (2007)Buy on AmazonBertram Grosvenor Goodhue by Richard Oliver, MIT Press, 1983Buy on AmazonAlice in Wonderland - A Play With Illustrations by Bertram GoodhueBuy on AmazonA book of architectural and decorative drawings by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, 1924Buy on Amazon Source: The Alexander S. Lawson Archive, Ithaca Typothetae at www.lawsonarchive.com/april-23/ [accessed April 26, 2012]

Sunday, November 3, 2019

The Special Christmas Time Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Special Christmas Time - Essay Example The essay "The Special Christmas Time" presents the description of author's impression regarding Christmas. The time of joy, presents and pleasant surprises! You never know when you come to realize new things in your life. It seems that Christmas has a unique power to open the doors to new personal discoveries. Hurrying to work and back home, one gets into a circle of everyday problems, unable to see and perceive the real joys of every day. Christmas time brings you to a totally different world getting you from that circle and whirling into a world of wonders and fairy discoveries. Looking at the turmoil of Christmas time – people hurrying, buying presents, decorating their homes – you get the mood of the holiday, some burning wish that something unexpected and good can happen on the Eve of the greatest of the Christian holidays. You expect this good to come from some unexpected source and look forward to the wonder to come from the distance while this wonder is really within you and nobody but you are responsible for the miracle to enter your life. The awareness of the miracle came to me this Christmas. The preparation for the celebration was the same like other years – the same excited people choosing presents to their relatives and friends, the same decoration on the neighboring houses, the same wish of unexpected discoveries. This year I bought some presents for my wife and children. As always, I arranged everything near New Year Tree. Suddenly in the glossy toy ball hanging from the tree branch.