Thursday, October 31, 2019

Reader response Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Reader response - Essay Example Ideally, it is factual that the pursuit to any goal is always very challenging and obstacles can prevent somebody from achieving the desired goals. Doubts will always jeopardize our chances of succeeding. Notably, perseverance is what distinguishes winners from losers and quitters never win. With utmost dedication and perseverance, we can overcome all the challenges in our journey to success and emerge as victors. The poem starts with a serious acclamation urging the audience to â€Å"Roll the dice†¦. if you’re going to try, go all the way. Otherwise, do not even start.† This statement seeks to encourage the audience to start the pursuit, take chances, take risks, and make a commitment with a hope to succeed. Ideally, rolling the dice signals the beginning of a game of chances where the player can either win or lose. Nevertheless, despite the possibility of negative result, a dedicated player must make up their mind, start the game, and hope to win. The poet asserts that such a decision should not carry any doubts and the audience must commit themselves to the end. Indeed, trying is always not enough since the end justifies the means. A double-hearted person will mostly lose because they do not believe in themselves and in the system. As such, the poet urges the audience to persevere and go all the way to the end if they dare to try. After all we can only ascertain the end result if the player finishes the challenge. Otherwise, the poet notes that there is no need to start the pursuit if one does not have a commitment to go all the way. Indeed, having double standards, doubts, and lack of confidence will lead to poor results of the pursuit. The poet goes ahead to establish the possible challenges and consequences that might arise from such a commitment. Ideally, in making a serious decision to pursue a certain goal to the end with all means, one must denounce so many things, people, pleasures, and other

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Discussion Question week 10 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Discussion Question week 10 - Essay Example This site became approved after the US FDA audit at Jigani, which is another plant owned by Hikal Limited. The company promised to give all research contracts to Peter Nightingale, who owns Acoris Research Ltd, Pune, India. Nightingale is an expert in the pharmaceutical and other chemical sectors. By giving the research contract to this company, Hikal will offer many job opportunities to Indians. This is because Acoris Research Ltd will use Indians to carry out the research since they know their community well. Local people benefit from local job opportunities since they have strong relations with the communities where they live. When a manufacturing plant becomes established, local people become given first opportunities so that they can accommodate the activities, particularly, when they involve environmental pollution. 3 Some residents who lack enough competence end up working in new plants, since managers lower qualification levels to fill different job positions. Eventually, these employees enhance their job skills and confidence in their fields, which makes other local employers admire them. This, in turn, increases their wages and employability, in the long run. â€Å"Hikal to begin API manufacturing facility operations by June 2012.† Business Last modified November 3 2012.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Disadvantages of gm food

Disadvantages of gm food Abstract This report strives to provide an insight upon the numerous disadvantages of GM food and crops pertaining to humans and the environment. The fundamental core of this report concerns the human health risks posed by the consumption of GM food by the community. Safety tests for GM foods are scant and sparse, and toxins as well as allergenic components in these GM foods are unpredictable. Alternatively, GM crops prove to be disparaging to the environment. As a result of GM crops being grown, GM superweeds exist and the earths biodiversity is disrupted. Conversely, GM crops incur substantially high costs. Cost of seeds for GM crops is excessively priced and agri-biotechnological companies stand a chance to abuse this cost in order to reap more profits. 1.0 Introduction Genetically modified foods, otherwise recognized as GM foods, pertain to crop plants or animals engineered for consumption through the application of the latest techniques for molecular biology (Whitman, 2000). Desired traits and characteristics such as increased resistance against pests and improved nutritional content are expressed through the modification of these plants in laboratories. Newly improved crops have been known to demonstrate resistance towards pests, require less water, and generally thrive as well as develop in less than optimal growing environments. Genetic engineering was first discovered in the year 1983, and since then has been utilized for the potential benefit of mankind. However, GM foods have made an impact on the world as it is today. As avowed by Whitman (2000), GM foods have been actively protested against by environmental organizations in Europe and public interest groups for months, and the matter of genetic manipulation has been propelled to the vanguard of public awareness by contemporary disputable studies regarding the effects of genetically-modified corn pollen on monarch butterflies. In the United States of America, research has proven that in the year 2001, more than 60% of processed foods in the country contain bio-engineered foodstuffs such as genetically-modified soybeans and corn (Sakko, 2002). Though there are many queries regarding the safety of such GM foods, in addition to its advantages and disadvantages, the actual question arising from such an issue remains evident: Should GM food be banned for the benefit of mankind? Despite claims that GM food is beneficial to human health, environmentally friendly and its benefits outweigh its disadvantages; GM food should be banned for the greater good as it evidently poses human health risks, is environmentally hazardous, and is costly. This report exposes the disadvantages and adverse effects of GM foods on humans as well as the environment. The scope of this report is global, as GM foods are present in almost all countries around the world and GM crops are on the rise in replacing conventional crops in order to to conform to the needs of humans. 2.0 Human Health Risks Many shortcomings arise from the consumption of GM foods. First of all is the endangerment of human health. It is possible that by introducing foreign genes into the genetic make-up of a plant may result in unexpected and negative impacts upon the wellbeing of humans. As the application of genetic engineering is relatively new to the human society, there is inadequate scientific study regarding the many dangers to health caused by GM foods, and safety test technology is insufficient in gauging the potential dangers to humans. Aside from that, GM foods may carry within themselves unpredictable toxins and might possibly increase the threat of allergenic reactions. 2.1 Scarcity of Safety Tests Knowledge regarding health risks due to GM foods is sparse. As affirmed by Domingo (2000), many opinions exist concerning health risks of genetically modified foods. However, actual publications and information on GM food toxicity remains scarce. It is relatively harder to appraise the safety of foods originating from crops compared to individual chemicals, food additives, or drugs. This is because of the genetic composition of crop foods that is much more complex, and may vary in accordance to discrepancies in growth and agronomic conditions. An example of this is the initial and sole assessment of a GM fruit, the FLAVR SAVR tomato, as assigned by Calgene. This GM tomato was cultivated through the insertion of kanr genes into a tomato by an antisense genetic modification method. Outcomes asserted that no major differences in overall mineral and vitamin as well as in toxic glycoalkaloid levels were observed. Hence, the GM tomatoes are considered to be as harmless as their parent tomatoes (Pusztai, 2001). This is undeniable that the safety test in regards to the safety of the FLAVR SAVR tomato is oversimplified, and does not encompass all aspects of how a safety test should be. As such, the safety test is defectively planned and executed, rendering the conclusion that the GM tomatoes were safe implausible. 2.2 Unpredictable Toxins and Allergenic Components Unwanted consequences can also be a result of the insertion of genes into the genetic make-up of GM crops, as some of the ways and methods the incorporated genes express themselves or the way they affect the exhibition of the genes of the crop are evidently random and mostly erratic. This could result in the production of unfamiliar toxins and allergenic components when consumed unknowingly. This is as evidenced in a toxicity test done on mice. Mice were fed with GM potatoes induced with a Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki Cry1 toxin, a toxin imbued within the genetic composition of the potato for the sake of repelling insects. This was shown to have caused villus epithelial cell hypertrophy and multinucleation, disrupted microvilli, mitochondrial degeneration, increased numbers of lysosomes and autophagic vacuoles and activation of crypt Paneth cells in the mice (Pusztai, 2001). These results still manifest despite claims of the contrary by its producers and manufacturers, resulting in widespread confusion and fear within its consumers. In another case, a proposition to splice a gene originating from Brazilian nuts into soybeans was rejected due to the trepidation of resulting in unforeseen allergic reactions. GM food derived from modified GM crops is known to trigger new allergies through the synthesis of new proteins by the imported genes introduced. Almost all food allergens are protein-based, and they are likely to be comparatively small and resistant to heat, acid and stomach enzyme degradation (Chow, 2009). Although crops frequently used as staple foods contain thousands of dissimilar proteins, relatively few are known to be allergenic. Though so, their allergenic potential might have been altered through the use of genetic engineering, rendering even foods not generally known to instigate allergies to do so. Should a host plant be noted to express allergenic properties, bringing in new genes into its genetic make-up could actually lead to the allergenic proteins being over-expressed, making the plant more all ergenic. Beneficial to Human Health Proponents of GM foods constantly assert that GM foods are beneficial to human health. They contend that GM foods possess medical advantages, and are able to be modified to make edible vaccines. However, this argument is inadequate. GM foods are still being researched on, and the assumption that they are able to function as supplements is dangerously over-rated. Data and information regarding the effects numerous types of GM foods are insufficient, in spite of everything that those who support the commercialisation of GM foods state. Should GM foods be released to the population without proper examination and regulation, many lives would be endangered, in contrast to what is as claimed due to the unknown effects of many allergens to the human body. As such, GM foods are actually detrimental, and should not be acclaimed to be advantageous to human health when it has not been proven to be so. 3.0 Environmentally Hazardous Additionally, another disadvantage due to the cultivation and breeding of GM crops is the risks it poses to the environment. Numerous environmental activists and advocates of the environment have all made known their concerns and apprehensions regarding the threat GM crops create for the ecosystem. Tempering the genetic make-up of crops to produce GM food might consequently result in the manifest of GM Superweeds. Also, the biodiversity of the environment will be altered or could potentially be disrupted at a larger scale. 3.1 Creation of GM Superweeds Crops genetically manipulated to be able to generate their own pesticides or to be herbicide-resistant pose a dangerous danger to the environment. These crop plants altered genetically to be tolerant to herbicides and pesticides might cross-breed with the local flora, causing the herbicide-resistant genes to be transferred from crop plant to weed. As avowed by Cummins (1999), the growing of these GM crops will inevitably ensue in the emergence of weeds that are resilient to pesticides and herbicides, resulting in the need for stronger, more potent forms of toxic chemicals to liberate the pests. These superweeds will then be a menace to the GM crops in turn, and even to the environment as a whole. This is as illustrated by the emergence of the first superweed, a plant that cant be killed by almost anything, in Canada. A single canola plant in Ottawa was discovered to be resistant to numerous types of pesticides (, 2001). Canola plants contrived to help farmers in increasing their productivity had instead escaped and cross-bred with one another to produce offsprings that are even more resistant than their parents. Most pesticides werent able to exterminate these super canola weeds, which were wrecking havoc in wheat fields and other prospective areas in which farmers dont want them to grow in. 3.2 Disruption of Biodiversity The notion of biodiversity denotes the wide variation of organisms in a given ecosystem. Numerous interactions between these organisms keep the biodiversity of an environment high, and when disturbed will result in an often adverse if not disadvantages effect to the particular ecosystem. Wild type plants in an area will typically be overwhelmed when a GM crop is planted in its vicinity due to the superiority and better adaptation of the crop to its environment compared to the wild type plants. The GM crops will then be competing with the wild type plants for essential resources like light, water, and important nutrients in the soil for survival, and will most likely prevail. The subjugated wild type plant will then either be extinct or be wiped off from that area. This will then indirectly affect the survival of other organisms that might have relied on the wild type plant for food, shelter, or protection. For instance, research has proven that the plantation of a GM plant, B.t. corn resulted in a high mortality rate in monarch butterfly caterpillars (Whitman, 2000). Unfortunately, the ideal conditions for the plantation of B.t. corn coincides with that of the milkweed plant, which is the staple food for monarch butterfly caterpillars. Milkweed plants were unable to compete and were wiped off in large amounts due to the prevalence of B.t. corn in the ecosystem. This caused monarch butterfly caterpillars to perish in significant numbers owing to insufficient food supply. Hence, this perfectly illustrates the adversity of GM crops to the environment. Can Be Engineered to Maintain Quality of Soil Supporters of GM food relentlessly insist that GM crops are able to be genetically altered to maintain the quality of the soil regardless of the nutrients required. They claim that akin to herbicide-resistance, GM crops can be engineered to return the nutrients it derives from the soil, to the soil, thus sustaining the nature of the soil. However, this assertion is derisory. In fact, as verified by Cummins (1999), due to the mounting use of herbicides owing to the herbicide-resistant traits typical to GM crops, the effectiveness of pesticides will gradually decrease. This will subsequently increase the use of even more toxic pesticides by farmers intending to rid their fields of weeds without any detrimental effect to their crops. Should these super-pesticides be used excessively without moderation, pesticide residues in soil and on crops will inexorably increase, rendering the soil infertile and even poisonous. Therefore, it can be deduced that the cultivation of GM crops is harmfu l to the environment. 4.0 High Costs Introducing a GM food into the market worldwide proves to be a costly and arduous process, in which companies involved would then be inclined to ensure positive, profitable revenue for their investment towards its manufacture and marketing. To avoid copyright infringement, these companies then patent new plant engineering technologies and GM crops produced by them respectively. This would inevitably raise the costs of seeds of GM. In addition, agri-biotechnological companies might abuse the costs of these seeds to generate more profit and proceeds to the dejection of farmers. 4.1 Excessive Cost of Seeds Due to the patenting of GM crops and new crop engineering technologies, the price of seeds of GM crops has soared to astonishing heights as the prices are dictated by their respective agri-biotech companies. Certain breeds of GM crops and their seeds can only be created by certain companies, and these companies will then have full monopoly over its pricing. As such, prices of such GM seeds are not regulated and can even be as much as ÂÂ £10 for 100 grams as compared to ÂÂ £10 for 100 kilograms for its conventional counterpart (Malone, 2008). Small-scale farmers and Third World countries are unable to afford the cost of these GM seeds, but remain dependent upon them due to dire circumstances or termed conditions. This inevitably widens the gap between the privileged and the marginalised. As elucidated by Andrews (2009), GM seeds have skyrocketed and increased sharply throughout subsequent years. Farmers and Third World countries purchasing Monsantos Roundup Ready 2 Soybeans, a GM crop engineered by a leading agri-biotechnological company specialised in the manufacture of GM crops, in 2010 are required to pay an additional 42% more than the price they disbursed for in 2009. However, these countries and farmers are tied down by a contract in which they are required to patron Monsanto for specified number of years, rendering themselves incapable of any other option other than being indebted to the company. This is merely one of the examples in which the elevated prices of GM seeds prove to be detrimental to farmers and Third World Countries. 4.2 Abuse of Cost by Agri-biotechnological Companies Agri-biotechnological conglomerates might also exploit the cost to produce GM seeds. In an effort to enhance sales and profits, agrochemical industries have developed a technique referred to as the terminator technology to prevent farmers cultivating particular GM crop to save and re-plant harvested seeds. The terminator technology designates crops that have been genetically manipulated to yield sterile seeds upon harvest. This will result in farmers and Third World countries being compelled to procure seeds from those companies often at an inflated price. To further fortify this argument, it has been reported that Monsanto has incorporated Delta Pine Land, the worlds prime cotton seed company possessing three US patents on terminator technology, into its midst. These sterile genetically altered seeds would be able to secure a much greater monopoly than patents by making it unfeasible for farmers to re-use harvested seeds from their GM crops. This compels force dependence upon external sources for seeds by small farmers as well as Third World countries that are financially challenged. Hence, agri-biotech companies stand a chance to garner huge profits from the fragile fiscal instability such parties endeavour from. Beneficial to Farmers Advocates of GM crops persistently insist that even with the high costs required for growing GM crops, farmers remain as the ones reaping the benefits eventually. They are assured that GM crops are able to incur massive yields and produce, despite their initial costs for seeds. The profit gained at the end of the day would be more than sufficient to reimburse the cost of GM seeds at the start. On the contrary, this allegation is falsely based. GM crops have proven time and time again to be damaging to farmers. As is the case in India, thousands and thousands of Indian farmers are resorting to suicide after planting GM crops (Malone, 2008). They were promised with harvests previously unheard of and riches as well as incomes undreamt of by cultivating GM crops. Enticed by the assurance of future prosperity, these farmers then borrowed money in order to purchase the seeds needed. However, when harvests failed attained what has been promised, these farmers are left with escalating debts , and no incomes. Consequently, to escape from reality and anguish, they remedied their predicament through suicide. Hence, it can explicated again that GM crops are in fact, disadvantages to man. 5.0 Recommendations To address this issue, first of all, governments worldwide should play their respective parts. To curb and stem the growing ascendancy of GM crops and the marketing of GM foods, governments of countries should place a nationwide ban on GM food and crops. Agri-biotech companies should be imposed upon to discontinue manufacture and further development of GM food immediately. However, should this option be impractical, mandatory health testing of GM food must be employed. Before being released to the public as food products, GM food must be made to undergo multiple examinations to determine its various side-effects, if any, and to ascertain its safety for human consumption. Furthermore, compulsory food labelling of GM food must be necessitated. Agri-business industries should be made to mark their products of GM food in order for consumers to identify genetically modified foodstuff from unmodified ones. Additionally, the usage of chemical and toxic substances such as pesticides and herbicides that may result in harm to the environment should be regulated by the government. Stringent perimeters should be implied upon the amount of these pesticides used that may be employed throughout the growth and production of these GM foods. 6.0 Conclusion Succinctly, GM food should be forbidden for the greater good of mankind due to human health hazards, environmental risks, as well as exceedingly high costs for cultivation. GM food has not been proven to be entirely safe for consumption, as proven by multiple cases of dangers wrought through its intake as well as utilization. Therefore, in an attempt to restrain the increasing popularity of GM food, various parties must play their respective parts and take a stand in this issue. We, as humans capable of thought and logic, must progress with caution and prudence lest we bring destruction to ourselves and to the environment. Only by doing so can the future of mankind be guaranteed and the lives of our future generations spared from unnecessary dilemmas. 7.0 Bibliography Andrews, J., 2009, GM seed prices soar, Farmers Weekly Interactive, Reed Business Information Ltd., viewed 2 March 2010,>, n.d., Introduction to Terminator Technology, Ban Terminator, viewed 2 March 2010,> Chow, S., 2009, Genetically Modified Food Allergenicity and Safety Assessment, Centre for Food Safety, viewed on 2 March 2010,> Cummins, R., 1999, Hazards of Genetically Engineered Foods and Crops: Why We Need A Global Moratium, In Motion Magazine, NPC Productions, viewed 2 March 2010,> Domingo, J. L., 2000, Health Risks of GM Foods Many Opinions but Few Data,, viewed on 2 March 2010,>, n.d., Are GM Foods Destroying Biodiversity?, Genetically Modified Foods, viewed 2 March 2010,>, 2001, Superweed story turns nasty, GMWatch, viewed 2 March 2010,> Malone, A., 2008, The GM genocide: Thousands of Indian farmers are committing suicide after using genetically modified crops, Mail Online, World News, Associated Newspapers Ltd., viewed 2 March 2010,> Steward, G., 2000, Genetically Engineered Superweeds Emerge in Canada, Organic Consumers Association, viewed 2 March 2010,> Pusztai, A., 2001, Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?,, American Institute of Biological Sciences, viewed 2 March 2010,> Sakko, K., 2002, The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods,, American Institute of Biological Sciences, viewed 2 March 2010,> Whitman, D. B., Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?, ProQuest, viewed 2 March 2010,> 8.0 Appendix 1

Friday, October 25, 2019

Flags of All Countries :: Essays Papers

Flags of All Countries Flags hold a personal fascination for me. On the World Wide Web, â€Å"Flags of all Countries† made me sit up and take notice. This site can be found at I have written of certain flags and the memories they invoke in the past. Who would have thought so much information could be packed into a site that at face value is about rectangular pieces of fabric? Even though I did no research of my own into this area, the site seemed factual and well documented. Flags of all Countries chose as their â€Å"Web Master† noteworthy ITA, or Information Technology Associates. This company specializes in geographic references, web design, software, and domestic and international flags. ITA is a company that strives to help people by making information available. They sell software to immigrants, the United States government, foreign governments, large corporations, hospitals, and to interested individuals. With such a broad range of consumers, ITA has established a reputable, trustworthy reputation. Photius Coutsoukis, a man known and rewarded for his online translators and online stores, founded Information Technology Associates in 1994. From that date the company blossomed from an education site for United States immigrants to a software boutique, e-merchant, and a major Internet publisher. All this information contributed to the credibility of the â€Å"Flags of all Countries† site. â€Å"Flags of all Countries† is also very user friendly. Every contemporary country in the world is listed. Each country listed is a link to either a list of the states in that country or the flag of the country itself. This list is located in the visible center column where it is easily accessible. The site also has links located on a column on the left side where the user can find the symbolism and brief history of each flag, or bring up â€Å"quick-maps† of any and all countries. Also available is information on immigration and general facts about the specific countries listed. There is so much information offered it appears impossible to exhaust. This site also gives the user an opportunity to easily paste any of the flags on a personal web page.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Harmful Effects of Television Essay

Television is a medium of communication, information, and entertainment. It is the most popular system for transmitting images and sounds to people. In fact, television can have negative effects due to radioactivity, falsehood and obsession. First of all, television releases radiation. A lot of people believe that television is harmless. However, scientific studies prove that unlike any other household equipment television sends out a lot of radioactive rays. Indeed, radiation deteriorates vision. As well, it can damage it. For example, some people like to sit close to TV sets. Their eyes are too close to the screen and radioactive rays are constantly getting in their eyes. For that reason, television harms people’s vision. Television sends out radiation that has negative effect on people. see more:television essay for kids Secondly, television is bad due to its falsehood. Television is a media tool to twist the truth. For instance, advertisements for products hide the truth. Many exaggerate the truth in order to sell their products. They aim only at people’s money, but not on pleasing clients with a product. All media is constructed. As well, violence on TV is not real; however, children who watch TV think that violence is reality. Television influences children when they make decisions. For example, after children watch a violent movie they might resolve their problems by using violence. People start to accept the media’s twisted information as the basis of moral and right behaviour. Also, false information on TV misleads people because often they believe what they see. Therefore, television is negative because it contains false data. Finally, people get obsessed with television because it becomes their hobby. For instance, some people love to watch TV and it becomes their first priority. They put everything aside in order to watch TV. They become isolated, and don’t have a social life. Also, children love to watch TV rather then do their homework. Children get obsessed with TV and they might get behind in their studies. For example, watching a late movie will result  in sleeping late and being tired the next day. In addition, watching television can become a steady habit. As a result, people get obsessed with watching television. In conclusion, television has bad effects on people because it releases radiation, hides the truth and becomes an obsession. Though television may be a temporary relief from reality in the short term, the long-term effects are devastating both physically and mentally. There is more to life than a remote control, if we can’t even get up to change the channel than reality is that TV does nothing for the spirit.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Cultural Enlightenment

They have access to large listening libraries, state-of-the-art recording studios, Instrumental combos, and regular master classes given by a variety of highly successful, working Jazz musicians. Graduates find work In a variety of settings as arrangers, ensemble directors, vocal coaches, recording engineers and producers, jingle singers, jazz artists, educators, theme-park and cruise-line entertainers, contemporary Christian singers, pop/rock singers, cabaret and club performers, back- p singers, and even arts administrators and managers.I thought about attending my first concert as an audience member, as I watched choir members Join their ranks. I was not sure what my reaction would be. Would I feel moved by the music? Would it put me in that fantastic trance of both energy and peace? As I watched the choir file on stage as part of their Vocal Jazz Ensemble Concert, I noticed many new faces mixed In with the familiar. I thought fondly back to my first weeks in the church choir as I was growing up. The music began before I knew If I was ready.After Just a few notes, though, I began to relax. I was still In the sanctuary. The experience was different. My nerves were running high, but the music still took me n TTS nana, Ana gently lea me to Tanat place AT Inner peace. Can song was an exploration of different texture and flavor of music. The music was introspective and thought provoking, bold and inspiring. Most importantly, the music was an escape. Music creates a wall of protection from those concerns. That is its power.I Joyously left the peaceful sanctuary so beautifully created by the choir on Friday night. Yet, I continue to hold that reminder of God's presence in my heart. It's a place I can go to when I need strength or peace. The music continues to live through this choir, and I know that their witness has inspired me. It is my hope and prayer that everyone who is a part of this wonderful process-director, choir members, and audience alike-will continue to carry this purpose and message with them. â€Å"The music lives! † Praise the LORD! [pick]

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

ACT Score for the Ivy League Whats the Lowest Score I Can Get in With

What's a Good SAT/ACT Score for the Ivy League What's the Lowest Score I Can Get in With SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Are you aiming to attend an Ivy League school? What ACT/SAT scores do Ivy League universities- Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, Penn, and Yale- expect? Here, we look at what test scores these eight highly selective schools consider good, as well as what scores are considered borderline. Disclaimer: SAT/ACT Scores Aren't Everything When you apply to an Ivy League school, they'll be looking at many other admission factors beyond just your SAT or ACT score. In fact, if you were to ask any of these schools' directors of admissions whether a perfect score would guarantee you admission, the answer would be a big, fat NO. You need more than a perfect SAT or ACT score to get into an Ivy League school. Ivy League schools look for strong test scores as well as strong recommendations, extracurriculars, and GPAs, which I'll call "Other Factors." If you have a great SAT/ACT score, then you can get away with merely excellent Other Factors. If you're at the bottom of the range, though, you'll definitely need a superstar rating in Other Factors. Keep this in mind as you read this article. Exclusive Free Bonus: Click here to download a free step-by-step guide on finding your personal SAT/ACT score target. Once you go through these steps, you'll know exactly what score you need to aim for. What's a Good SAT/ACT Score for the Ivy League? An SAT score of 1580 (out of 1600) or ACT score of 35 (out of 36) will place you right in the top 25% for most Ivy League schools, whereas an SAT score of 1450 or ACT score of 31 would put you at the boundary of the bottom 25%. Thus, you can interpret your score as follows: 1580 SAT/35 ACT or higher: You don't need to improve your SAT/ACT scores. Work on making sure that you don't have any weaknesses in the rest of your college application. 1450 SAT/31 ACT or lower: Your SAT/ACT score is going to be very limiting. You need to improve your score, and at the same time make sure you have at least one additional super strong component in your college application. Check out our guide on what to do with a low ACT/SAT score for tips. Now, let's look at the 25th and 75th percentile SAT/ACT scores for all Ivy League schools: School Name 75% SAT 25% SAT 75% ACT 25% ACT Harvard 1590 1460 35 32 Yale 1590 1420 35 32 Columbia 1580 1450 35 32 Princeton 1570 1430 35 31 Brown 1570 1410 34 31 Dartmouth 1560 1430 34 30 Penn 1560 1420 35 32 Cornell 1550 1390 34 31 If you're scoring lower than the 25th percentile on either the SAT or ACT, you'll have a really tough time getting accepted to an Ivy League school. Unfortunately, you just won't measure up to all the other highly qualified applicants who have extremely impressive SAT/ACT scores. Clearly, these are very high standards. In fact, all 75th percentile scores for Ivy League schools are in the 99th percentile nationwide. To be at the top of the Ivy League application pool, you will need to be one of the top 1% of test takers in the country! What's a Good SAT/ACT Score for YOU? While these SAT/ACT scores for the Ivy League can be used as standard guidelines, everyone has a different target score. This means that you'll need to know the SAT/ACT score target that's right for you. But how do you figure this out? Your target SAT/ACT score will be based on the colleges you're applying to. You'll need to find the average SAT/ACT scores of admitted students for all the schools you're interested in attending, specifically their 75th percentile scores. Aiming for the 75th percentile will give you the best chance of getting into all the schools on your list. You can find SAT/ACT scores and percentile information for a school by visiting its admission page or by Googling "[School Name] PrepScholar SAT/ACT" For example, if you wanted to know what the average SAT scores for NYU were, you'd Google "NYU PrepScholar SAT." Once you've found these scores for all the schools you're thinking of applying to, find the highest 75th percentile score on your list; that's the goal score you'll be aiming for. For a more in-depth explanation and access to blank charts you can use to keep track of schools' SAT/ACT scores, click the link below and enter your email address- you'll get a free step-by-step guide on how to calculate your personal SAT/ACT goal score. What's Next? Want expert tips on how to get into the Ivy League? Read our famous guide on how to get into Harvard and the Ivy League, written by a Harvard alum. Curious how Ivy League schools compare with one another? Take a look at our in-depth analysis of the Ivy League rankings, and learn what these numbers mean for you. What's a good SAT/ACT score for non-Ivy League schools? Our comprehensive guides explain what good ACT scores and good SAT scores are, depending on the schools you're applying to. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT and ACT prep classes. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160+ points or your ACT score by 4+ points. Our classes are entirely online, and they're taught by experts. If you liked this article, you'll love our classes. Along with expert-led classes, you'll get personalized homework with thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step, custom program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Try it risk-free today:

Monday, October 21, 2019

Molecular Mechanisms, Symptoms and Treatments in Cystic Fibrosis The WritePass Journal

Molecular Mechanisms, Symptoms and Treatments in Cystic Fibrosis Introduction Molecular Mechanisms, Symptoms and Treatments in Cystic Fibrosis IntroductionMolecular MechanismsSymptomsCurrent TreatmentsFuture TreatmentsConclusionRelated Introduction Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder currently affecting over 9000 people living in the United Kingdom alone, with millions of people carrying the faulty recessive gene responsible for the disease. This essay is split into 4 distinct sections, firstly looking at the faulty gene and its effects on the organs of the body, followed by an in-depth look at the symptoms of patients suffering with cystic fibrosis, whereas the third section will look at the treatments available to sufferers. The forth section will contain potential future cures and treatments for the cystic fibrosis. Molecular Mechanisms The faulty gene that codes for cystic fibrosis affects organs such as the lungs and pancreas. This fault causes high mucosal build up in these organs. Noticeably with regards to the lungs as the high volume of mucous can cause severe breathing difficulties. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein is coded for by the CFTR gene, in chromosome 7 of the human genome. CFTR is a glycoprotein made up of 1480 amino acids consisting of 5 domains. The CFTR protein is responsible for a variety of functions in the apical membranes of cells including the transport of chloride ions, regulation of the sodium ion channels and the regulation of hydrogen carbonate ion transport across the apical membrane[3]. However, it seems that the main contributing factor to cystic fibrosis is the transportation of chloride ions across the apical membrane and sodium ion regulation. Mutations in the CFTR gene can be categorized into 6 classes; depending on the effect they have on the production of the CFTR protein. The mutations are listed below in Figure 1, with the consequence of the mutation on the CFTR protein. Mutation Number Consequence of Mutation I Not synthesised II Inadequately processed III Not regulated IV Shows abnormal conductance V Partially defective production VI Accelerated degradation Figure 1 – Table showing the Mutation Number and the Consequence of the mutation on the CFTR protein The mutations stated in figure 1, either cause the CFTR protein to become ineffective or prevents synthesis altogether. Classes I and III prevent synthesis of the CFTR protein, whereas other mutations cause problems in the production of the protein.   Class II mutations effects can vary from the CFTR protein being completely dysfunctional to significantly reduced function depending on the patient. Class IV and Class V mutations do not cause the CFTR protein to cease working, but do have a derogatory effect on their function. Class VI mutations cause before-time degradation of the protein meaning reduced function. One of the consequences of the CFTR protein not functioning in cystic fibrosis patients is a high concentration of chloride ions developing in the intracellular space, as well as little regulation of sodium ions entering the cell. Under normal circumstances water would diffuse out the cell and contribute to the airway surface liquid as the concentrations of chloride and sodium ions would be higher in the extracellular space. However with a defective CFTR gene the osmotic gradient is reversed. Thus leading to a high ion concentration within the cell and depletion in the airway surface liquid. Cilia are small hair like projections in the respiratory tract which are responsible for wafting the mucous up the respiratory tract so it can be swallowed and infection averted. Mucous is one of the body’s primary physical defences against bacterial infection. Pathogens capable of causing respiratory disease are caught on the mucous in the respiratory tract and eventually swallowed with the aid of cilia thus avoiding the entry of pathogens into the lungs and causing bacterial infection.   Airway surface liquid also prevents infection by facilitating the movement of mucous up the respiratory tract. However when there is depletion in airway surface liquid, the cilia are also affected. The mucous therefore needs to be of low viscosity so it can be easily moved up the respiratory tract. However, due to the lack of airway surface liquid in a patient with cystic fibrosis the mucous becomes static and more viscous leading to bacterial infections in the lungs. Cystic Fibrosis does not just affect the lungs in some cases. Occasionally, the pancreas and in the case of men, reproductive organs can be affected. This all depends on which class of mutation of the CFTR gene the patient has as patients with Class I, II and III are prone to pancreatic insufficiency3. In normal pancreatic exocrine secretion, the digestive enzymes secreted from pancreatic gland cells, are mixed with a bicarbonate-rich fluid, secreted from duct cells and released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion of food. The function of the pancreatic gland cells remains fairly constant, but there is a noticeable difference in secretion of the bicarbonate-rich fluid from the duct cells. Thickening secretions causes the duct releasing fluids into the small intestine becomes blocked by enzymes precipitating as well as mucosal build up. With the ducts becoming more blocked, the pressure inside the pancreas increases and as the pancreas lacks structures aiding in support i s therefore very prone to damage. Symptoms Cystic fibrosis effects different organs around the body and therefore gives rise to a vast range of symptoms. The organs most heavily affected by cystic fibrosis are the lungs and the pancreas, and in males, the reproductive organs are affected. The most obvious indication that a patient may have cystic fibrosis would be a family history of the disease. As cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder, the faulty recessive gene can be passed to children. Due to the gene being recessive, it is possible for parents to be a carrier for cystic fibrosis but not express any symptoms themselves. Therefore if both parents are carriers of the gene, then there is a 25% chance of the offspring having cystic fibrosis.   From 2009 onwards it is required for new-born babies in the USA to be screened for genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis. If positive, it gives doctors an opportunity to act quickly and maybe prevent other more serious problems, related to cystic fibrosis developing later in life[7]. Other common symptoms that are shown by most ages are salty tasty skin, clubbing of the fingers and toes, coughing with sputum production, mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from airway secretions and hypochloraemic metabolic alkalosis[8]. The symptoms shown by the patient are also different depending on their age. Figure 2 shows a table listing the symptoms by age they become prevalent. Neonatal Infancy Childhood Adolescence and Adulthood   Meconium ileus Persistent infiltrates on  chest  radiographs Chronic pansinusitis or nasal polyposis Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis Protracted jaundice Failure to thrive Steatorrhoea Chronic pansinusitis or nasal polyposis Abdominal or scrotal calcifications Anasarca or hypoproteinaemia Rectal prolapse Bronchiectasis Intestinal atresia Chronic diarrhoea Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome  or intussusception Haemoptysis Abdominal distention Idiopathic recurrent or chronic pancreatitis Idiopathic  recurrent pancreatitis Cholestasis Liver disease Portal hypertension Staphylococcus aureus  pneumonia Delayed puberty Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (vitamin A deficiency) Azoospermia  secondary to congenital bilateral absence of the  vas deferens Haemolytic  anaemia Figure 2 – Depending on the age of the patient, different symptoms for Cystic Fibrosis will be apparent shown in the table above8 As shown in Figure 2, cystic fibrosis has a big effect on many parts of the body. However, the main problem for a patient with cystic fibrosis remains pulmonary disease and the effect of the gastrointestinal problems which arise. Innate defence mechanisms like the physical barrier provided by the mucous, lining the respiratory tract, is inefficient at its function in a patient with cystic fibrosis. This therefore leads high levels of bacterial infection and inflammation. The bacterial infections begin soon after birth with Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus inï ¬â€šuenzae usually being the pioneer bacteria causing primary infection in the lungs of a patient. It has been suggested that these bacteria are responsible for damaging the epithelial surface cells and therefore aiding other bacteria bind to the surface, however this is still under debate by scientists. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the organism responsible for the later, fatal infections that cause the highest mortality rate in patients with cystic fibrosis. The CFTR protein not only has functions transporting ions, but it is also thought to have a role in binding molecules of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In a normal individual, Pseudomonas aeruginosa binds to the CFTR protein, and a rapid and self-limiting inï ¬â€šammatory response9 occurs removing the infection from the respiratory tract. This explains why Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main causative agent of pulmonary disease in cyst ic fibrosis sufferers. Symptoms of cystic fibrosis caused by gastrointestinal problems are mainly caused by the inability to digest food. As mentioned above the ducts leading to the small intestine, which would carry a liquid, containing digestive enzymes is blocked. This causes the pancreas to come pressure and gets damaged. The symptoms caused by this inability to digest food are greasy stools,  flatulence, abdominal bloating, and poor  weight gain8. At the time of its discovery, malnutrition was the main cause of death due to the inability to produce the enzymes in the pancreas to digest food. Malnutrition can now be treated using pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy8, however other factors like the poor adsorption of fat soluble vitamins can lead to acrodermatitis, anaemia, night blindess, neuropathy, osteoporosis and bleeding disorders8. A high percentage of Cystic fibrosis patients can develop Cystic Fibrosis related Diabetes Mellitus (CFRD) due to the pancreatic damage that is done by the blocking of the ducts within in the pancreas. The Islet of Langerhans produces insulin and glucagon to regulate blood glucose concentrations. Insulin stimulates the formation of glycogen, removing glucose from the blood stream whereas glucagon stimulates the breakdown of glycogen. With the pancreas undergoing autolysis, it is inevitable that these cells will become damaged and unable to produce a sufficient amount of insulin. However, CFRD is different to diabetes mellitus I and II. The specific symptoms affected by cystic fibrosis are glucose metabolism,   acute and chronic infection, glucagon deficiency, liver dysfunction, decreased intestinal transit time, and increased work of breathing8. Cystic fibrosis also affects male reproduction. In the male reproduction organs, the vas deferens is responsible for the transfer of sperm from the epididymis in anticipation of ejaculation8. Male patients with cystic fibrosis lack this muscular tube and therefore there is no sperm in their ejaculate. Women however are fertile, but careful control of nutritional intake must be taken to ensure the full term of pregnancy and subsequent birth can be achieved. I can be possible for parents to pass the gene for cystic fibrosis onto their children. As a man expressing the disease being infertile the recessive gene must come from a carrier of cystic fibrosis but not expressing any symptoms. If the female sufferers from cystic fibrosis then there is a 50% chance that the child will also have the disease. However if the female is also a carrier of the recessive gene then there is a 25% chance that the child will have cystic fibrosis. Current Treatments As it stands at the moment, cystic fibrosis cannot be cured. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease, and therefore there is an error in the DNA of cells of an individual apart from their gametes. This means that the only available option to sufferers is to find drugs to treat the various symptoms. However in recent years there have been successful attempts to find drugs to resolve the original defects. Patients with cystic fibrosis often suffer from severe pulmonary infections, as they are less efficient at swallowing mucous containing pathogens. The airway surface liquid and cilia, as discussed above are responsible for the movement of mucous up the respiratory tract in a normal individual. Cystic fibrosis sufferers lack the required volume of airway surface liquid. One such treatment, looking to solve the problem caused by the faulty gene is hypertonic saline. Hypertonic saline is the current drug used to bring about an increase in the volume of airway surface liquid in the lungs of the patients. It has been shown by researchers that in vitro, hypertonic saline is effective with rehydrating and providing more airway surface liquid8. If from an early age there is aid with mucosal clearance from the respiratory tract, it would reduce the chances of the patient developing severe bacterial infections from pathogens such as pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibiotics are also important to control pulmonary bacterial infections that occur from poor mucosal clearance. Macrolide antibiotics are cheap antibiotics used to treat cystic fibrosis sufferers. They work by inhibiting the bacteria protein biosynthesis; however the precise mechanism they use is currently not fully understood. Macrolides have a dual function in the cystic fibrosis treatment. They affect cytokine production of many cell types and are therefore effective as anti-inflammatory agents8. One study showed that taking azithromycin three times a week reduced the virulence factor production, decreased biofilm production, bactericidal effects on pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in stationary phase8. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms brought about by cystic fibrosis require other forms of treatment, as they unable to produce enough enzymes to digest their food. Enzymes are usually secreted from the pancreas into the small intestine, allowing the individual to digest their food. However a patient with pancreatic insufficiency is unable to secrete the enzymes into the small intestine due to the intrapancreatic ducts being blocked. This needs to be treated as patients are at risk of severe malnutrition if food cannot be fully digested. Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Theory (PERT) is used to treat this problem. The enzymes used in PERT are taken with every meal to aid in the absorption of food in the small intestine.   This does not solve the underlying problem caused by cystic fibrosis, and can only treat the symptoms. This is because the enzymes do not last for a great deal of time in the body; the reason why enzymes must be taken with every meal. Chest physiotherapy can aid in the treatment of a sufferer as it can help in mucosal clearance from the pulmonary tract[11]. Some methods focus on the way the patient breathes which include active cycle of breathing techniques, and autogenic drainage11. However some techniques focus on actual mucosal clearance like positive expiratory pressure (PEP) oscillating positive expiratory pressure11. The final and most severe treatment used to use the chronic pulmonary disease is lung transplantation. This procedure comes with high risk with only 50% children surviving 5 years after the transplant and 50% of adults surviving 6 years after the transplant8. Future Treatments As of yet there is no cure for cystic fibrosis, however there are promising new drugs on the horizon which could one day all but cure the genetic disease. A drug that is combatting the â€Å"basic defect† of cystic fibrosis is VX-770 made by Vertex pharmaceuticals. This drug is currently undergoing trials in the United States of America and is showing promise for improving lung function in those affected by cystic fibrosis. The drug itself targets the chlorine channels in the apical membrane, opening them to allow chlorine to leave the epithelial cells. Results from the recent Phase 3 clinical trials showed that there was a 10% increase in lung function in people aged 12 and above, and a 12.5% increase in lung function for those from ages 6 to 11. The drug also decreased the concentration of chlorine in sweat and allowed the patients taking the drug to gain on average 7 pounds12. Pancreatic insufficiency usually makes it hard for the cystic fibrosis patient to gain weight, meaning the drug has an effect on gastrointestinal symptoms as well as respiratory symptoms. The idea of gene therapy is a concept that has been around for a while. The Cystic fibrosis gene therapy consortium was set up in 2001 to focus on developing new ways to combat cystic fibrosis and the symptoms. In February 2009, the consortium made a step closer to find a â€Å"gene therapy cure† for cystic fibrosis. They managed to insert successfully, a working CFTR gene into a viral vector, which was then transported into the lungs of a cystic fibrosis patient. Whereas the idea itself is good, there are some drawbacks. The viral vector itself comes under attack from the immune system as well as viral vectors being poor at inserting DNA into epithelial cells8. Therefore the The Cystic fibrosis gene therapy consortium has been looking at using lipid vectors currently with little success. They have reported that currently gene expression in the cells that do take up the gene is currently temporary and they are looking into methods to provide sustained gene expression in the ep ithelial cells. Not all mutations cause the CFTR protein not to be synthesised. Some mutations cause the CFTR protein to be marked for degradation as the chaperones, aiding with folding the protein, do not dissociate from the protein8. There have been tests in labs using chemicals such as phenylbutyrate8, however any further developments in this field of research. Conclusion It is remarkable how such a small difference in the DNA of an individual can have so much effect on the patients’ health.   However the future looks bright for those patients suffering with cystic fibrosis. There is a huge amount of research taking place in order to find new treatments and potential cures for the disease. Recently, research has shifted from looking for ways to treat the symptoms, to methods of treating the underlying problems behind the disease. For example a drug called VX-770 made by Vertex Pharmaceuticals, focuses on the inefficient chlorine channels in the epithelial cells. If cystic fibrosis remains a continually financially backed area of research, there is no reason why significant progress cannot be made sooner rather than later.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Regional Dialect - Definition and Examples

Regional Dialect s A regional dialect is a distinct form of a language spoken in a particular geographical area. It is also known as a  regiolect or topolect. If the form of speech transmitted from a parent to a child is a distinct regional dialect, that dialect is said to be the childs vernacular. Examples and Observations As opposed to a national dialect, a regional dialect is spoken in one particular area of a country. In the USA, regional dialects include Appalachian, New Jersey and Southern English, and in Britain, Cockney, Liverpool English and Geordie (Newcastle English). . . .In contrast to a regional dialect, a social dialect is a variety of a language spoken by a particular group based on social characteristics other than geography.(Jeff Siegel, Second Dialect Acquisition. Cambridge University Press, 2010)[L]inguists refer to so-called Standard English as a dialect of English, which from a linguistic point of view, is no more correct than any other form of English. From this point of view, the monarchs of England and teenagers in Los Angeles and New York all speak dialects of English, (Adrian Akmajian, Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication, 5th ed. The MIT Press, 2001) Studies of the Regional Dialects in North America The investigation of the regional dialects of American English has been a major concern for dialectologists and sociolinguists since at least the early part of the twentieth century when The Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada was launched and dialectologists began conducting large-scale surveys of regional dialect forms. Although the traditional focus on regional variation took a back seat to concerns for social and ethnic dialect diversity for a couple of decades, there has been a resurgent interest in the regional dimension of American dialects. This revitalization was buoyed by the publication of different volumes of the Dictionary of American Regional English (Cassidy 1985; Cassidy and Hall 1991, 1996; Hall 2002), and more recently, by the publication of The Atlas of North American English (Labov, Ash, and Boberg 2005). (Walt Wolfram and Natalie Schilling-Estes, ​American English: Dialects and Variation, 2nd ed. Blackwell, 2006) Varieties of Regional Dialects in the U.S. Some differences in U.S. regional dialects may be traced to the dialects spoken by colonial settlers from England. Those from southern England spoke one dialect and those from the north spoke another. In addition, the colonists who maintained close contact with England reflected the changes occurring in British English, while earlier forms were preserved among Americans who spread westward and broke communication with the Atlantic coast. The study of regional dialects has produced dialect atlases, with dialect maps showing the areas where specific dialect characteristics occur in the speech of the region. A boundary line called an isogloss delineates each area. (Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams, An Introduction to Language, 9th ed. Wadsworth, 2011) Regional Dialects in England and Australia The fact that English has been spoken in England for 1,500 years but in Australia for only 200 explains why we have a great wealth of regional dialects in England that is more or less totally lacking in Australia. It is often possible to tell where an English person comes from to within about 15 miles or less. In Australia, where there has not been enough time for changes to bring about much regional variation, it is almost impossible to tell where someone comes from at all, although very small differences are now beginning to appear. (Peter Trudgill, The Dialects of England, 2nd ed. Blackwell, 1999) Dialect Leveling [T]he frequent complaint today that dialects are dying out reflects the fact that the basis for dialects has shifted. Nowadays, people travel hundreds of miles and think nothing of it. People commute to work in London from as far afield as Birmingham. Such mobility would explain, for example, why 150 years ago there was a traditional Kentish dialect, while today it barely survives, such is the close and regular contact with London. ... [I]nstead of small relatively isolated communities where each person mingles with more or less the same people for a lifetime, we have vast human melting-pots where people have diffuse social networks- mingling regularly with different people, adopting new speech forms and losing the old rural forms. Both developments in communication and the effects of urbanization have contributed to dialect leveling, a term referring to the loss of original traditional dialectal distinctions. (Jonathan Culpeper, History of English, 2nd ed. Routledge, 2005)

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Corporate Social Responsibility of McDonalds Assignment

Corporate Social Responsibility of McDonalds - Assignment Example The paper tells that corporate social responsibility includes a variety of tactics such as environmental, philanthropic and ethical. A new field of corporate social responsibility has emerged that encourages companies or organization to take steps and initiatives in the interest of all stakeholders. The public or consumers are also considered stakeholders and hence the organization should create a balance between the interests of both stake shareholders. McDonald's is the leading international fast food retailer which is spread over 36,000 locations and serves approximately 69 million customers in 100 countries daily. Most of the McDonalds branches are run by independent businessman and women. The success of the company’s success is the system which aligns the franchises and supplies. By the implementation of this system, McDonald's was able to satisfy the customers with what they wanted. This system also allows local customization of the product. McDonald's focuses on three p riorities for the optimization of its menu; to modernize the consumer’s experience, to increase accessibility to McDonald's with convenience and to optimize the menu. McDonald's plan to win strategy focuses on people, product, place, price, and promotion in order to increase the customers experience regarding McDonald's. McDonald's is considered to possess the largest framework when the subject of CSR is discussed. Their motto of CSR â€Å"responsible food for a sustainable future† outlines their social responsibilities. A board of directors is responsible for keeping McDonald's up to the standards that are being guaranteed to their stakeholders. The first step taken by this board of directors was to create a code of conduct in order to ensure that every supplier follows this code of conduct. This agreement is then signed by the suppliers. McDonald's also considers the three E’s that is ethical responsibility, environmental responsibility, and economic responsib ility. This serves as the vision for the supply chain management.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Linda Hogan's Dwellings - Knowledge Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Linda Hogan's Dwellings - Knowledge - Essay Example For example, industries dealing with oil continue to be developed, and the remaining land continues diminishing so as to make room for the industrial establishment in the modern world. People have forgotten about the beauty that nature creates, and hence the Mother Nature continues to die day by day. She talks about the relevance of human beings seeking a terrestrial knowledge with the natural world. She melds phenomenal descriptions of the environment with crucial reflections on human’s place in their relationship with nature. A crucial discussion topic in the novel is knowledge. The westernized culture encourages people to gather knowledge through science, and other concrete ways of thinking that are logical. On the other hand, native people gain knowledge through experience and they accept abstract ideas as real ones. Hogan disputes the western definition of knowledge and believes that it is evident through the results, and knowledge of the natural world and cycles. Through her words, it is evident that science has also contributed to evil among humans and also brought isolation of knowledge. Human have developed and are unwilling to accept the things that are superior to them in the natural world. Western culture influence creates a perception that human beings have dominance over nature (Hogan 25). In relation to knowledge, Linda Hogan is a well learned person with a complete knowledge and focuses on the various ways that nature relates with human beings. For example, she had a wider knowledge about terrestrial intelligence. She looks at the various perspectives in the world and has developed philosophies regarding nature. In Dwellings, her focus lies on the terrestrial intelligence of dwelling places and living creatures reinforce the notion of earth as a vital place for all living organisms. Her questioning of Western meanings based on components of the natural world makes us understand the anthropocentric constructions of nature as an ideology wi th many fixed meanings. Dwellings are like a challenge to the places and meanings of people’s perceptive. Dwellings guide us on how to nurture a spiritual connection with everything in the world. Hogan’s approaches are nothing less than magical, mystical, and mythical, which are mostly on the American Indian mythology. She argues that myth is usually false, but after examining myths, they are a form of truth. Animals and places symbolise within the natural world used to dismantle the existing western notion which comes from these myths and shapes her worldview (Hogan 28). In the chapter, â€Å"The Bats†, Hogan describes the bats which associate with blood sucking terrors of Dracula, as sacred creatures that live in two worlds, crediting them with considerable insight and wisdom. There are two animals merged into one as they are milk producing rodents that bear live young and a flying bird. For Hogan, bats have a spiritual relevance in that they act as guardians in the passage into a spiritual state and are intermediaries. According to her, bat people live in between two worlds, and hence referred to as intermediaries between the world and the next. As intermediaries, western culture stigmas have associated them with fear and evil. The bats, therefore, are guidelines to a spiritual existence as opposed to being creatures associated with horrifying darkness (Hogan 42). Another Hogan’s take is on snakes and is similar to that of the bat. She views this in association

Social Impact of Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Social Impact of Technology - Essay Example and deforestation as a result of this insatiable need for paper (which resulted in environmental degradation) were sky high not to mention the untidiness associated with littered paper all over. With the age of computers however, people could now store a lot of information on tiny microchips that would have otherwise taken up truck-loads of papers in the ancient world. Computers have in this way single handedly saved our environments (Hintz & Hintz, 1983). World economies have also flourished because of these machines. Because of computers, there is now faster communication, better service delivery and exchange of currency through a plethora of network services and e-mails. Lucrative business engagements can now be initiated via Skype, for instance, or simply by sending mail at the click of a button. In addition, operational costs have been significantly reduced and businesses spend much less on communication unlike the old days when messengers had to be expensively hired and paid (Knowles, 1976). Education has been made much easier too. Almost all information and books are now found in the internet unlike in the past where learners had to contend with the mental drawbacks or visiting distant and paying for library fees and tuition to acquire basic information. One can now access almost all information from the comfort of their homes and send and receive feedback on various issues from other students without much hassle. Computers have in addition, improved the quality of education now offered in the modern school. Teachers are now free to focus on student development unlike in the past when one, for example, had to rush through a lecture in order to go and manually calculate scores for end-session evaluations and so on (Hintz & Hintz, 1983). Perhaps one of the grey areas concerning this fantastic innovation concerns its influence on relationships and morals where it can present both positive and wildly negative impacts. In as much as computers have allowed

Divorce ( by lack of communication skills) Essay

Divorce ( by lack of communication skills) - Essay Example So many times, people think of listening as simply hearing the words. This is not the case though as the process involves hearing the words, thinking about them and analyzing what the message is being conveyed beyond the words. Reacting quickly and furiously to words is just a sign of hearing but not listening, often resulting to a fight which eventually puts a hedge between couples if not breaking the bridge between them. On the other hand, speaking is construed as saying words to communicate what is in one’s mind. Howbeit, this is usually abused with one party wanting to be considered most of the time. This causes problems which could result to getting tired of a spouse’s much talk, leading to bickering that could worsen to fights and eventually separation. Concurrently, silence would be the resort of the partner who does not like to fight verbally which is a form of communication problem with the person involved being unable to express what is in his heart. Behind communication as a cause for divorce, there are still so many issues that need to be considered which this paper can not contain due to some restrictions. In any case, it is the purpose of this paper to show that communication problem is one of the reasons for divorce which was discussed earlier. In this regard, it might be good for couples to have counseling on this to reduce the risks of divorce which can cause lack of con fidence, and more communication

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Ending Hunger from the Elderly Population Essay

Ending Hunger from the Elderly Population - Essay Example On the other hand food insecurity is also increasing at an exceptional rate in less developed countries, but its growth rate is also significant in the elderly population of the developed nations including America. According to the survey conducted by (Weill), majority of the elderly population in US, is suffering from the phenomenon of malnutrition and food insecurity. However the solution lies in developing a better food distribution network in US, which should provide the food according to the need of every individual and family irrespective of the race, religion and age. This solution is most logical one, because of the observation registered by (Pothukuchi and Kaufman) that points out a deficency in the food distribution system in US. This unjust distribution system for food is the evidence of racism in the culture of America (Zolberg), where whites have so much food to stock, whereas the people with colored skin are starving from hunger. Another factor which is contributing tow ards growing hunger in elders, is the individualistic culture that motivates people to concentrate on their own lives, therefore, they have little time to care about their elders (Savikko). The growing phenomenon of hunger is also causing the health standards of elders to drop significantly, because the medication, these people are taking require healthy food intake for its effectiveness. Majority of the researchers are emphasizing on the implementation of the policies to raise the degree of self sufficiency through training and development (Bowenng, Clancy and Poppendieck), but this paper is against this viewpoint, because old people are often unable to grasp new skills and their ability to actively work is also become limited due to aging. However, govermental agencies are also fairly active in providing relieve to the elderly population in America, but these activities are proven to be less than effective in uprooting the undirsable situation caused by hunger. On the other hand i f this condition is not countered effectively, then it will encompass other citizens of US in round about five years, because right now, US agricultural sector is producing food that is more than its need, but the population growth will cause severe food shortage in US food market, during coming years. In this situation Americans will have to import food items from other countries, which will result in rise in the prices of food items in the local market. This will, therefore worsen the situation for elderly population with minimum income level. It is evident, from the above discussion that, US ought to plan for the demand and supply situation concerning food in the future, otherwise the shortage of food will increase and encompass other members of the population along with elders. The methods of economical health services along with the less expensive and consistent food supply for elders in the society, could be an effective measure for counteracting the developing phenomenon of h unger and food insecurity. Conclusion In the light of a thoroughly conducted field survey, 80% of the food deprived population is constituted by African American elderly males in the shiny city of New York (Bowenng, Clancy, & Poppendieck, 1991). This observation compelled this effort to notify that, racism is still present in the very roots of the American Society,

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Changes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Changes - Essay Example Fertility decline and population aging will have a dramatic effect on society and if these problems are nor addressed will only become more severe in the future. The increase in age population will also increase the population ratio to population dependency. There will be problems with the long term care of the elderly. The costs of that dependency is born by the Government and ultimately by a society through taxes in an ever diminishing workforce due to a decline in fertility. Of course a decline in the birthrate will leave a short fall in all forms of employment both professional and menial. There will definitely be a labor shortage. The decline in birthrate effects the living arrangements of the elderly. There are more elderly living alone and the strong family support that is prevalent in most societies will weaken.With less family to help , the elderly persons financial position will also weaken and lead to serious financial difficulties. Immigration has always been one of the answers to labor shortage throughout the world. â€Å"Large-Scale Immigration is Suggested as a Solution to Declining Workforces in Western Nations.†(Wikipedia.) This alone will not solve the problem and major changed to government policies will be needed to buck the trend of low fertility. The distance between the working life and family life will be needed to be brought closer together to encourage families to have more children. Issues such as child care subsidies and parental work policies taking in flexible work hours and parental leave need to be looked at. Quality and affordable childcare will need to be provided. Although Government policies to reverse the trend of low birthrate and the consequent aging population will be slow and the benefits will not be seen for many years but these issues need to be addressed now in Germany and Italy to ensure a fruitful future for both

Ending Hunger from the Elderly Population Essay

Ending Hunger from the Elderly Population - Essay Example On the other hand food insecurity is also increasing at an exceptional rate in less developed countries, but its growth rate is also significant in the elderly population of the developed nations including America. According to the survey conducted by (Weill), majority of the elderly population in US, is suffering from the phenomenon of malnutrition and food insecurity. However the solution lies in developing a better food distribution network in US, which should provide the food according to the need of every individual and family irrespective of the race, religion and age. This solution is most logical one, because of the observation registered by (Pothukuchi and Kaufman) that points out a deficency in the food distribution system in US. This unjust distribution system for food is the evidence of racism in the culture of America (Zolberg), where whites have so much food to stock, whereas the people with colored skin are starving from hunger. Another factor which is contributing tow ards growing hunger in elders, is the individualistic culture that motivates people to concentrate on their own lives, therefore, they have little time to care about their elders (Savikko). The growing phenomenon of hunger is also causing the health standards of elders to drop significantly, because the medication, these people are taking require healthy food intake for its effectiveness. Majority of the researchers are emphasizing on the implementation of the policies to raise the degree of self sufficiency through training and development (Bowenng, Clancy and Poppendieck), but this paper is against this viewpoint, because old people are often unable to grasp new skills and their ability to actively work is also become limited due to aging. However, govermental agencies are also fairly active in providing relieve to the elderly population in America, but these activities are proven to be less than effective in uprooting the undirsable situation caused by hunger. On the other hand i f this condition is not countered effectively, then it will encompass other citizens of US in round about five years, because right now, US agricultural sector is producing food that is more than its need, but the population growth will cause severe food shortage in US food market, during coming years. In this situation Americans will have to import food items from other countries, which will result in rise in the prices of food items in the local market. This will, therefore worsen the situation for elderly population with minimum income level. It is evident, from the above discussion that, US ought to plan for the demand and supply situation concerning food in the future, otherwise the shortage of food will increase and encompass other members of the population along with elders. The methods of economical health services along with the less expensive and consistent food supply for elders in the society, could be an effective measure for counteracting the developing phenomenon of h unger and food insecurity. Conclusion In the light of a thoroughly conducted field survey, 80% of the food deprived population is constituted by African American elderly males in the shiny city of New York (Bowenng, Clancy, & Poppendieck, 1991). This observation compelled this effort to notify that, racism is still present in the very roots of the American Society,

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Healthy fear Essay Example for Free

Healthy fear Essay Fear is a feeling; it is a reaction to something we are frightened of, a natural instinct when faced with something we feel may endanger us. However, fear can be healthy and/or unhealthy; for instance, being afraid of spiders is slightly unhealthy as they can not actually do any harm but if a person is afraid of developing cancer and as a result of this they stop smoking, this is a healthy fear. In biological terms, when any fear is experienced, certain areas of the brain such as the amygdala and the hypothalamus are activated which control the initial, physical response to fear. Chemicals such as adrenaline and the stress hormone cortisol are then released into the blood stream causing certain physical reactions such as; a rapid heart rate, increased blood pressure, tightening of muscles, sharpened or redirected senses, dilation of the pupils (to let in more light) and/or increased sweating. (Native Remedies) Having a phobia is a fear of something. Whatever this phobia may be, it creates a feeling of fear and causes irrational and sometimes inexplainable behavior. Being afraid of confined spaces can cause some people to avoid travelling in elevators at all costs, others who are are fearful of flying may never travel abroad. There are fears in everyone, a fear of growing old or a fear of dying is possibly an unhealthy fear as ageing and death comes to us all. Fear can present itself when feeling nervous about something, perhaps before an important occasion or a speech in front of people; there may be a fear of forgetting what to say or a fear of embarrassing oneself. Apprehension is fear and sometimes an apprehensive manner is due to the unknown, expecting something bad will happen creates a sense of apprehension. Anxiety is also fear, having experienced something that created dissatisfaction or dislike, there can be a fear in this feeling recurring, therefore an anxious fear is felt. In some people anxiety can control their lives and medication is necessary, normal worries and healthy fear are less likely to make you feel this way. Fear in children is slightly different to fear in adults. As they are unable to rationalize and compare their fears to anything other than the way they feel, a child feels an actual threat by what they are in fear of, sometimes this can cause inconsolable behavior, only rationalized when they are able to understand they are not in any real danger. Fear can be controlled by the mind. It is the brain that gives the message of something to be afraid of; if that fear is an irrational fear (spiders), then it is possible to overcome this fear by thinking logically. Unless you are faced with a wild tarantula, the tiny spider can do no harm. By telling yourself that the spider is more fearful of humans may put your fear in its place. Fear is completely normal and is a useful tool when recognizing and distinguishing danger; how we respond is according to our fear.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Exploring The Health Benefits Of Tea

Exploring The Health Benefits Of Tea Japan the country with the worlds longest life expectancy. Based on Paul Wiseman, journalist from USA TODAY reported that Japanese live longer life compared to everyone else in the world (par. 1). Frank Jordans, journalist of The Huffington Post also states that Japanese girls that are born in the year 2009 have a high chance of living to the year 2095, some may even stand the chance to explore the wonders of the next century (par. 1). Have you ever question the reason why Japanese carries the title of the worlds longest life expectancy? One of the reason is Japanese consume tea, in large quantity. Many countries across the globe believed in the health benefits of drinking tea peculiarly China, Japan, India and even England. Tea, commonly known as the natures wonder drug should be continuously explored by the general public to increase health awareness (Tea Benefits). The natures wonder drug tea, plays an important role in varies countries around the world which includes the formation of cultural ceremonies, trade routes, formal events, entertainment, and leisure for almost 4000 years. Tea is important not just solely due to the taste but also the health benefits that are tied along this ancient drink. Hence, people should include tea into their daily routine and experience the revitalizing benefits of tea (Walker). Tea has numerous health benefits that could be grouped into 5 different categories: overall health care, mental health, internal organ, fitness appearance, and illness disease. Tea contains chemicals known as polyphenols that provides antioxidant properties of tea. Antioxidant reduces the rate of aging process and improves regeneration of cells (Bell). It is true that coffee also contains antioxidant properties that have similar effect towards our human body, but, coffee contains much more caffeine as compared to tea that contributes towards a negative effect on human. For every ounces of green tea, it contains 3.1mg of caffeine while every ounce of a Starbucks Tall Coffee contains 21.7mg of caffeine (Energy Fiend). In this case, the caffeine level in coffee is 7 times stronger compared to tea. Just like any drugs, caffeine causes a chemical reaction that creates addiction towards the brain that will cause withdrawal symptoms when caffeine is not taken. When temporary stimulation is not given, brain cells will start demand for caffeine for stimulation. Deprivation of caffeine might even result in severe conditions like depression or other mental problem (Jo hnson). In addition, tea helps to keep body hydrated. Most caffeinated drinks actually dehydrate body fluid unless more than five to six cups are consumed at a time but tea has the opposite reaction. Tea is shown to be healthier than water as it keeps body hydrated in the same time providing antioxidants and a moderate amount of caffeine that is suitable for body intake (Walker). Many researches also show that tea provides a positive impact towards the brain and improve mental state of a person. Tea contains amino acid L-theanine that is scientifically proven to improve relaxation and concentration (Walker). I understand that many people like to drink coffee at it provides similar effects, some may even argue that coffee is better than tea as it provide instantaneous and stronger boost towards the brain as it contains a much higher level of caffeine. However, when high dosage of caffeine is consumed to provide the mental stimulant, it will lead to depression, mood swing and nervousness in the long run (Rodolfo). Tea also decreases the probability of having cognitive impairment, which affects the ability to think, reason, formulate ideas, and remember. Research shows that Japanese adults who drink at least 2 cups of green tea daily decrease the risk of cognitive impairment by 50%. Stress is unavoidable across age, gender, nationality and culture. Cortisol, a s tress hormone shows a 20% drop as a result of drinking 4 cups of tea daily for one month. This evidently proves that tea have the effect of reduce stress hormone level (Walker). Long term consumption of coffee in a daily basis will also disturb a persons sleeping pattern. Coffee, a beverage with high level of caffeine is a chemical stimulant that will stimulate our brain to be awake for a longer time period than normal people. This also means that people that consume coffee actually have a shorter sleeping period, and the quality sleep is highly affected. As caffeine is an addictive chemical, it will affect sleeping pattern of a person, and possibly causes insomnia or other sleeping problems, creating feeling of restlessness, tremors, and etc. The level of negative effects varies accordingly based on the consumption period, and consumption quantity (Johnson). Japan to be title the worlds longest life expectancy is mainly due to the fact that tea has many beneficial effects related to our internal organ, mainly our heart. Firstly, tea reduces the risk of heart attack and stroke as it prevents dangerous blood clots which is the main cause of heart attack and stroke. The Boston Area Health Study recorded a 44% lower risk when a person consume at least one cup of tea daily compared to a person that doesnt drink tea (McKay, and Blumberg 3). Not just in Boston, In a long-term study of a Dutch cohort, the highest tertile of tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of death from coronary heart disease and lower incidence of stroke (Yang, and Landau 2410). A reader might ask, is coffee good for our heart as well? Joseph A. Vita from Evans Department of Medicine and Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine states that There was no significant relationship between coffee consumption and cardiovascular disease ( 3293S). Hence, this proves that there is no significant positive correlation between coffees as compared with the natures wonder drug tea. On the other hand, tea helps lessen blood pressure level in the body and decrease risk of hypertension. Drinking half a cup of green tea daily could reduce blood pressure risk by up to half and it has a directly proportional relationship between tea consumption and reduction of blood pressure risk. The more tea is consumed daily, the further reduction of blood pressure risk. A research was held in Taiwan with 1507 subjects to test the long term effect of tea upon hypertension and it was concluded that consumption of more than 120ml or more per day for one year significantly decrease the risk of hypertension in the Chinese population (Yi-Ching Yang et al. 1534). Using this research as the fundamental base of argument, consumption of tea in a large quantity will further provide benefits towards our heart, hence, tea should be included into our daily routine. Teas benefits are not just limited to our heart and blood pressure, it also proven to improve our digestive system. For the past 5000 years, tea has been widely used in China as an after-meal drink to aid digestion as it contains high level of tannins. Other than that, polyphenols in green tea presented an effect that helps intestinal inflammation while antispasmodic agent available in the properties of red tea helps to relief stomach cramp (Walker). On the other hand, using coffee as a comparison, drinking coffee with an empty stomach will harm our internal body which will leads to ulcer growth in the long run (Rodolfo). As a people slowly include tea into their daily routine, they will discover tea can not only improve mentally brain, physically internal organs but also providing effects on a persons fitness and appearance as well. Most people does not know that tea contains tannins and fluoride, substance that is contain in regular toothpaste, in which both reduce oral tooth decay and plaque. University of Chicago proposed polyphenols that is contain in tea aids bad breath. Hence, tea provides a platform for oral care that includes healthier teeth and breath issues that is suffered by people. Antioxidant in green tea also take place in acne problems, it was shown to be functioning the same as 4% benzoyl peroxide which is mainly used in acne treatment, bleaching teeth and hair and improving flour (Walker). Hence, why not get acne-free skin from natural antioxidant by drinking tea? A cup of tea with its full aroma has no calories unless sweeteners, sugar or milk is added. This beverage is one of the healthiest low calorie drinks that provide the morning boost without worrying of gaining weight (Walker). It is true that coffee itself is also calorie free, but, most coffee drinkers have the habit of adding sugar, creamer, sweeter or milk into their coffee compared to tea drinkers, using the research held in Taiwan, out of 1507 subjects, only 4.8% have the habit of adding milk into their beverage tea (Yi-Ching Yang et al. 1537). It was also found out by the department of chemical biology of the State University of New Jersey that feeding oolong tea to diet-induced obese mice for 10 weeks prevented obesity and fatty liver (Yang, and Landau 2411). In addition, consumption of coffee (caffeine) in large quantity at once will also disrupt sugar level in blood that could affect fat burning to change into storing fat which will cause it weight gain and other negative ef fects towards out body (Wash). Since tea has so many benefits towards our health in regards of mentally nor physically, does tea have any positive implication towards illness and disease as well? The answer is YES. Tea contributes towards strengthening of our body immune defenses system. A study was held among tea drinkers and coffee drinkers to compare immune activity within the body and it was found that immunity activity was up to five times higher in tea drinkers. Hence, practice the habit of drinking tea especially when there are people around you not feeling too well as it could help to prevent germs or virus entering your body. As tea increase our immunity system, tea also aids fighting flu as participants who gargle black tea extract solution twice a day was found to be more immune to flu virus (Walker). Instead of taking flu shots, why not just try the magical effect of tea? Besides, tea contains alkylamine antigens, which is an organic compound similar function as some bacteria and tumor cells to boost immunity. Evidence shown that tea even has effect on serious infections like sepsis, a severe bacterial infection in body tissue or blood stream. Likewise, tea also has effect in preventing food poisoning. Bacteria which lead to food poisoning are killed and toxins effects are minimize through a substance known as catechin, a bitter ingredient in green tea. With the combination of catechin and polysaccharides, it was also found to have an effect on lowering blood sugar, which will also, leads to diabetes prevention in the long run (Walker). It is true that coffee prevents type 2 diabetes, it is a beverage that naturally contains sugar that are sugar friendly to our blood, if no additional substance (sugar, creamer, syrup, and etc.) are added, it is no doubt coffee is beneficial for controlling sugar level when consumed in small quantity. Based on the World Health Organization statistics, cancer the leading cause of death with 13% worldwide, accounted for 7.9 million people in 2007. The bad news is that deaths caused by cancer are projected with an uphill slope of up to 12 million deaths in 2030. The good news is, about 30% of the death caused by cancer can be prevented (Cancer). Tea, offers a gateway toward the prevention of cancer. Many experiments and research are held to question the relationship between tea and prevention of cancer development. Studies held in Asia among 8552 Japanese adults for nine years, all subjects consume at least 10 cups of green daily are found to be having the effect of delaying cancer onset. The protective effect differs according with gender females by 8.7 years while male by three years when compared to subjects consume less than 3 cups a day. On the contrary, the delay effect of cancer was found to be less significant in Europe populations who generally consume black tea. Therefore it is important to understand the effects of different tea on our body as well as the effect of tea also differ on type of cancer (McKay, and Blumberg 6). For instance, no relation was found between tea and breast cancer in recent studies in United States, Netherlands and Italy. Conversely, 472 Japanese patient with stage I and II breast cancer recorded an inverse relationship between green tea consumption period and recurrence rate after seven years. Green tea contains substances that able modifies sex hormones that have major relationship with the risk of breast cancer reoccurrence (McKay, and Blumberg 6). Another study that was held in Iowa in regards of postmenopausal woman, it was shown that there are lower risk for urinary tract cancer and digestive tract cancer when black tea is consumed (Yang, Landau 2411). Besides that, in Netherlands, 120852 people were observed to have a weak, inverse association with consumption of black tea and stomach cancer. However, in Poland, a significant result of stomach cancer reduction is found in woman who drank tea daily. Although the effect does not occur to men, it is important to take note th at growth of stomach cancer cells are inhibited through theaflavins, a substance contain in black tea (McKay, and Blumberg 6). The most important point is to acknowledge the different tea has its own unique chemical substances and effects towards human body in the same time understanding that there is no one tea fit all concept. The effects of tea vary accordingly and it is high affected by lifestyle, eating habit, geographical, population and climate of an individual. A careful in dept study should be held in each nation to understand the chemical properties of tea in associate with lifestyle from that area itself to obtain its greatest potential benefits. In the nut shell, tea has a vast variety of benefits which includes taking care of our overall health care and mental health, protecting our internal organs, in the same time provides a better fitness and appearance. It also provides preventive measures for illness and disease. Hence, the next time anyone asks the question, Hello, would you like coffee or tea? Please reply, I would like TEA.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Cuban Missile Crisis :: essays research papers fc

The world will never be the same since October of 1962. It is now known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. The U.S. learned that the Soviets were building nuclear missile bases on Cuba because the Soviets wanted to close the missile gap. Even though the Soviet Union promised they would not attempt to place nuclear weapons in Cuba, they put them there anyway in hopes that the U.S. would not find out until it was too late to do anything about it. The ploy almost worked. The nuclear bases were very near completion when a U.S. U-2 spy plane discovered the bases. The world held its breath as these events unfolded before their eyes; If any decision had have been different, it might have led to WW III. That is not a very comforting thought, knowing that we were so close to a nuclear holocaust. Many believe Kennedy made the right decision, I stand with that group; Others believe we should have conducted surgical strikes against the bases to show we would not tolerate a threat that close to our own shores. Kennedy was probably cautious about strikes because of the Bay of Pigs invasion which had failed so miserably just a year before. The Bay of Pigs invasion was an attempt by the U.S. to remove Castro from office. We armed and trained about 2000 Cuban exiles for this job. The hope was that a general uprising would begin, and Castro would be removed from office by his own people and not by any United States personnel. What cost the success of the mission was that the U.S. neglected to provide air cover for the troops. Of the 2000 troops, 300 were killed and the rest were taken prisoner. Evidently, Kennedy did not want another Bay of Pigs, so he elected to try a naval blockade. He must have made the right choice, because we are still here today. An advantage that the U.S.S.R. had if we had not found the missile bases in time, would have been the first strike capability. This does not necessarily mean the ability to strike first, needless to say, any country can do that; It means the ability to strike first and disarm the opponent at the same time. If the U.S.S.R. had active nuclear missile bases in Cuba, many Americans feared that the Soviets could make an attempt take out our air bases without our even realizing it until it was too late.