Saturday, August 31, 2019
Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, by William Shakespeare, tells the morbid tale of a young manÃ¢â¬â¢s quest for revenge. Set in Denmark during the Middle Ages, the play chronicles the assassination of a king and his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s usurpation of the throne and insinuation into the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s old life, to the point of marrying the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s own widow. Hamlet, the young prince, is charged by his dead fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost to bring his uncle to justice and restore the rightful crown. When Claudius, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle, comes to the realization that his young nephew has uncovered his murderous conspiracy, he resolves to assassinate the young prince as well. However, when his attempt to have Hamlet executed in England is foiled, he must find another means to surreptitiously remove the threat to his kingship. After Hamlet accidentally kills Polonius, ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ chief counselor, PoloniusÃ¢â¬â¢ son is filled with rage, resulting in Claudius concocting a plan to match Hamlet against PoloniusÃ¢â¬â¢ son, Laertes, in a duel to the death. II. THEME The theme primarily seen throughout the play Hamlet, Prince of Denmark is one of dilemma and indecision. This theme is reiterated often in the play, habitually in situations surrounding young Hamlet himself, due to his immaturity and inexperience. This is demonstrated as early as the opening of the play, in which Old HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost appears to Hamlet. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s difficulty in determining the difference between appearance and reality causes him to question whether the ghost is really a good spirit, or a devil trying to trick him. Ã¢â¬ Angels and ministers of grace defend us! Ã¢â¬â / Be thou a spirit of health or goblin damnÃ¢â¬â¢d, / Bring with thee airs from heaven or blasts from hell, / Be thy intents wicked or charitable, / Thou comÃ¢â¬â¢st in such a questionable shapeÃ¢â¬ (Ham. I. iv.623-627). This theme can also be seen in Act III, Scene iii, in which Hamlet is debating on whether to truly kill Claudius or to spare his life. Hamlet is at the point of deliberation as he sees his uncle kneeling in prayer and remorse, and thus, vulnerable. Ã¢â¬Å"Now might I do it pat, now he is praying; / And now IÃ¢â¬â¢ll doÃ¢â¬â¢t;Ã¢â¬âand so he goes to heaven; / And so am I revengÃ¢â¬â¢d. Ã¢â¬âthat would be scannÃ¢â¬â¢d:Ã¢â¬ (Ham. III. iii. 2350-2353). However, at that very moment, Hamlet wavers and begins to have misgivings about doing the actual deed. Ã¢â¬Å"But in our circumstance and course of thought,/ Ã¢â¬ËTis heavy with him: and am I, then, revengÃ¢â¬â¢d, / To take him in the purging of his soul, / When he is fit and seasonÃ¢â¬â¢d for his passage? / NoÃ¢â¬ (Ham. III. iii. 2360-2363). Another example of this theme is seen during one of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s darkest hours, in which he is disenchanted with life since his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, as well as disgusted with is motherÃ¢â¬â¢s hasty marriage to Claudius. To Hamlet, these momentous events have degraded the Danish court. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest impulse to kill himself to avoid debasement, and yet, he fears the damning consequences of suicide. Ã¢â¬Å"To be, or not to be,Ã¢â¬âthat is the question:Ã¢â¬â / Whether Ã¢â¬â¢tis nobler in the mind to suffer / The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune / Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, / And by opposing end them? Ã¢â¬âTo die,Ã¢â¬âto sleepÃ¢â¬ (Ham. III. i. 1710-1714). A minor theme in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark is remorse. In Act III, Scene iii, Claudius reveals his profound guilt about his crime, and states that he will never be able to seek GodÃ¢â¬â¢s forgiveness for it. Ã¢â¬Å"My fault is past. But, O, what form of prayer / Can serve my turn? Forgive me my foul murder! Ã¢â¬â / That cannot be; since I am still possessÃ¢â¬â¢d / Of those effects for which I did the murder,Ã¢â¬ (Ham. III. iii. 2327-2330). This minor theme can also be noted when Hamlet regrets not telling Ophelia that he really did love her when he stumbles upon her funeral in Act V, Scene i. Earlier, he had insulted and rejected Ophelia during one of his bouts of madness. Ã¢â¬Å"I lovÃ¢â¬â¢d Ophelia; forty thousand brothers / Could not, with all their quantity of love, / Make up my sum. Ã¢â¬âWhat wilt thou do for her? Ã¢â¬ (Ham. V. i.3466-3468). III. DICTION In the play Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, William Shakespeare utilizes an assortment of vivid images to describe certain objects. This enables the reader to form a clear mental picture of what is happening in each scene and of what had happened in the past. Ã¢â¬ ¦ in my imagination it is! my gorge rises at it. Here hung those lips that I have kissÃ¢â¬â¢d I know not how oft. Where be your gibes now? your gambols? your songs? your flashes of merriment, that were wont to set the table on a roar? Not one now, to mock your own grinning? quite chap-fallen? Now, get you to my ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s chamber, and tell her, let her paint an inch thick, to this favour she must come; make her laugh at that (Ham. V. i. 3375-3381). Shakespeare also makes good use of idialect in the play, which is particularly seen in HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement with the gravediggers. Ã¢â¬Å"A pickaxe and a spade, a spade / For and a shrouding sheet; / O, a pit of clay for to be made / For such a guest is meetÃ¢â¬ (Ham. V. i. 3283-3286). These terms are expressions that are commonly used in the mortuatory business. Due to the fact that the play was written centuries ago, the language of the play contains a large amount of poetic diction, with antiquated pronouns as well as inverted sentence order, such as seen in Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËTis now struck twelve. Get thee to bed, Francisco. / For this relief much thanks: Ã¢â¬â¢tis bitter cold, / And I am sick at heartÃ¢â¬ (Ham. I. i. 11-13). Precise, exact meanings are used when describing scenes, as well. This is clearly seen in Act III, Scene ii in which the actors are reenacting Old HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s poisoning by Claudius. Ã¢â¬Å"NeptuneÃ¢â¬â¢s salt wash and TellusÃ¢â¬â¢ orbed ground, / And thirty dozen moons with borrowÃ¢â¬â¢d sheen / About the world have times twelve thirties been, / Since love our hearts, and Hymen did our hands, / Unite commutual in most sacred bandsÃ¢â¬ (Ham. III. ii. 2023-2027). The use of diction greatly contributes to the subject and theme of the play, as well. The use of vivid images, as well as precise, exact meanings enable the reader to visualize the action that is taking place in each scene as well as understand the relationships that are occurring in the play. The inverted word order and use of antiquated pronouns help the reader picture a forbidding time period as well as visualize the conspiracies hatching around Denmark. Why, let the strucken deer go weep, The hart ungalled play; For some must watch, while some must sleep: So runs the world away. Ã¢â¬â Would not this, sir, and a forest of feathersÃ¢â¬âif the rest of my fortunes turn Turk with me,Ã¢â¬âwith two Provincial roses on my razed shoes, get me a fellowship in a cry of players, sir? (Ham. III. ii. 2142- 2150). IV. TONE The major tone of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark is ominous. With the play opening in the dead of night at the walls of Elsinore Castle, the reader can immediately sense the gloom, uncertainty, and anxiety that hangs over the kingdom of Denmark. It seems that everyone is aware of the terrible evil that surrounds the monarchy, particularly all of the circumstances that led to ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢s coronation. The threatening possibility of further evil to descend upon the kingdom is unconsciously on the minds of every character within the play. Minor tones can be sensed throughout the story during certain areas. A feeling of morbidity can be felt while looking at specific sections of the story. This gruesome feeling is often felt in association with the scenes involving death, such as the graveyard scene in which the gravediggers are chuckling and singing as they dig OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s grave. Irony is also another minor tone that can be found in several areas of the play. Hamlet truly loved Ophelia, and, by a twist of fate, he also caused her death in a roundabout way, in the murder of Polonius, whose death so depressed Ophelia that it lead her to insanity, and ultimately suicide. Irony is also especially evident in ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ death, in which he was forced to die in the same manner that he had planned for Hamlet. V. SYMBOLISM Different symbols represent different universal meanings in life and in the story. The most obvious symbol in the play is the poison that is used by Claudius in the murder of Old Hamlet. Poison is also used on the tip of LaertesÃ¢â¬â¢ sword and in ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ drink in another attempt to assassinate Hamlet. This poison could also be seen as a symbol of the death and corruption spreading throughout Denmark as a direct result of ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ rule. Another symbol seen in the play is the murder of Old Hamlet by his own brother, Claudius. The death of Old Hamlet by Claudius traces back to the time of the first murder between brothers, and shows a religious parallelism in going back to the story of Cain and Abel. Flowers are common enough in the play, but daisies hold a special meaning as well. OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëmad sceneÃ¢â¬â¢ is a scene which is full of flowers. In particular, however, she gives a daisy to HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Gertrude, which symbolizes faithlessness, in reference to GertrudeÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage to Claudius less than two months after her first husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Upon his suspicion of ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement in Old HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Hamlet is struck with the inspiration to have actors reenact the death of his father in order to observe ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ reaction. When the moment of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder is in the theater, Claudius is compelled to leave the room, and the play that the actors perform is symbolic of the guilt that Claudius feels. Perhaps the most famous of all symbols in the play Hamlet, Prince of Denmark is the skull of the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s former jester, Yorick. Hamlet holds a few sentimental memories of the jester, who used to give him piggyback rides and play with him. YorickÃ¢â¬â¢s death gives Hamlet an opportunity to contemplate human mortality, as well as remind him that life is not all pessimistic and glum and that there was a happier time in his life. VI. SPEAKER In Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, the speaker is in the third person. The author, William Shakespeare, is unnamed and uninvolved. The speaker does not have an active role within the story, yet is omniscient of everything that is occurring within the context of the play. VII. STRUCTURE Within Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, Shakespeare uses chronological order. The play begins with Hamlet discovering that the ghost of his father has been spotted wandering Elsinore castle, and ends with Hamlet avenging Claudius for the death of his father as well as his own death. Although references are made to events that have occurred in the past, such as the murder of Old Hamlet, these events are revealed as the past. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, written by William Shakespeare, is a paperback book consisting of 342 pages. The front cover depicts a man in the foreground, presumably Hamlet, with the image of a lady in the background, presumably Ophelia. The play consists of five acts, with as little as two scenes and as many as seven scenes within an act. VIII. Imagery William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play Hamlet, Prince of Denmark includes a wide variety of figurative language that helps the reader visualize the story and to guide in the understanding of the plot and the characters. Similes are used frequently throughout the play; the author uses similes often in describing objects around the scene, such as, Ã¢â¬Å"By the mass, and Ã¢â¬â¢tis like a camel indeedÃ¢â¬ (Ham. III. ii. 2249). Irony of situation is also used in the story. For example, throughout the last half of the play, the reader is aware of ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ plot to assassinate Hamlet by planting poison inside a goblet of wine, and assumes that Hamlet will be poisoned and die. However, in reality it is Claudius and Gertrude who drink the poison instead Ã¢â¬Å"No, no! the drink, the drink! Ã¢â¬âO my dear Hamlet! Ã¢â¬â / The drink, the drink! Ã¢â¬âI am poisonÃ¢â¬â¢d Ã¢â¬ ¦ Here, thou incestuous, murderous, damned Dane, / Drink off this potion. Ã¢â¬âIs thy union here? / Follow my motherÃ¢â¬ (Ham. V. ii.3788-3810). Alliteration is also used in the play by Hamlet. For instance, he refers to his Ã¢â¬Å"long lifeÃ¢â¬ (Ham. III. i. 69). and a Ã¢â¬Å"bare bodkinÃ¢â¬ (Ham. III. i. 76). An obvious and famous antithesis that can also be found in the play is the line, Ã¢â¬Å"to be or not to beÃ¢â¬ (Ham. III. i. 58), in which two opposites are juxtaposed next to each other for a dramatic effect. Metaphors were also used to imply comparisons between certain objects. This is clearly demonstrated in Act I, Scene ii during HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s soliloquy where he is comparing his own flesh to melting ice. Ã¢â¬Å"O that this too too solid flesh would melt, / Thaw, and resolve itself into a dew! Ã¢â¬ (Ham. I. ii. 312). The play also includes several soliloquies by Hamlet in which he is conversing with no one in particular save himself or the audience. During one long monologue, he is agitated and visibly upset over his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage to Claudius and addresses the heavens Ã¢â¬Å"Like Niobe, all tears;Ã¢â¬âwhy she, even she,Ã¢â¬â / O God! a beast that wants discourse of reason, / Would have mournÃ¢â¬â¢d longer,Ã¢â¬âmarried with mine uncleÃ¢â¬ (Ham. I. ii. 333-335). To help the reader understand certain situations and see circumstances from his point of view, Hamlet described certain objects with human characteristics, such as in Ã¢â¬Å"She married:Ã¢â¬â O, most wicked speed, to post / With such dexterity to incestuous sheets! Ã¢â¬ (Ham. I. ii. 340-341). Hyperbole is the use of figurative language that greatly exaggerates facts; for example, at OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s burial, Hamlet and Laertes are arguing and Hamlet calls for Ã¢â¬Å"millions of acresÃ¢â¬ (Ham. V. i. 3478) of earth to be piled onto all three of them. The phrase Ã¢â¬Å"Tis an unweeded garden,Ã¢â¬ (Ham. I. ii. 19). is the beginning of a conceit that extends throughout the book. Shakespeare is comparing Denmark to Eden, relying on the theme of corruption and how it spreads from the head monarch of Denmark (Claudius) throughout the entire court. IX. Genre The Handbook to Literature states that a revenge tragedy is a Ã¢â¬Å"form of tragedy made popular on the Elizabethan stage Ã¢â¬ ¦ largely Senecan in its inspiration and technique. The theme is the revenge of a father for a son or vice versa, the revenge being directed by the ghost of the murdered manÃ¢â¬ ¦ (440). The play Hamlet, Prince of Denmark perfectly fits this description in that Hamlet literally is the son that is directed by the ghost of his father, Old Hamlet, to avenge his death and bring Claudius to justice. Hamlet seeks revenge for the death of his father, which leads to much bloodshed and violence later in the play. According to The Handbook to Literature, a Senecan tragedy Ã¢â¬ ¦ combined native English tragic tradition with a modified Senecan technique and led directly toward the typical Elizabethan tragedyÃ¢â¬ ¦ though reflecting nsuch Senecan traits such as sensationalism, bombast, and the use of the chorus and the ghost, departed from the Senecan method in placing the murders and horrors on the state, in response to popular Elizabethan tasteÃ¢â¬ ¦ (472). This genre is also greatly accentuated in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, particularly towards the climax of the play during the duel between Hamlet and Laertes, in Act V, Scene ii, which leads to the dramatic, and somewhat sensationalized, deaths of Hamlet, Claudius, Laertes, and Gertrude onstage. X. Metrics Hamlet, Prince of Denmark is a play that primarily uses blank verse. The Handbook to Literature defines blank verse as Ã¢â¬Å"unrhymed but otherwise regular verse, usually iambic pentameterÃ¢â¬ (62). The four lines below are spoken by Hamlet as be deliberates on whether to commit suicide or not. To be, or not to be: that is the question: Whether Ã¢â¬â¢tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, (Ham. III. i. 1710-1714). These lines are written in iambic pentameter, although each of these lines contain an extra unstressed syllable at the end of each line. The majority of the play uses blank verse. However, there are certain areas in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark that employ prose in order to show intense feeling, as demonstrated in Act II, Scene ii. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ l tell you why; so shall my anticipation / prevent your discovery, and your secrecy to the king and / queen moult no feather I have of late,Ã¢â¬âbut wherefore / I know not,Ã¢â¬âlost all my mirth, forgone all custom of exercisesÃ¢â¬ (Ham. II. ii. 1340-1343). Prose is also commonly used for expressing madness.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Nature versus Nurture as Predictor of Happiness Introduction Ã Ã Ã Ã Happiness is one trait that is quite difficult to define and explain in human beings since different people have different things which they feel brings happiness to them which may be the complete opposite in other people (Phoenix, 2007, pp.104). One thing that may raise positive emotions in one individual may raise the opposite negative emotions in another person, hence making it quite difficult to have a clear cut definition of happiness. This tends to raise the question of what exactly always makes one happy and what are the relative importances of nature versus nurture as predictor of happiness in human beings. According to Phoenix (2007), Ã¢â¬Å"The behavior of people and other animals cannot be understood without taking account of the influence of their environments as well as their biologyÃ¢â¬ (Phoenix, 2007, p.104). This means that happiness as part of human beings can be an influence of nature or nurture as the main predictors of the happiness of an ind ividual. People who conducted research and came up with the various cause of happiness or the predictors of happiness must have experienced happiness at one point during their lifetime (Spoors, et al, 2007, pp.5). Ã Ã Ã Ã This could simply indicate that every human being has the chance and opportunity of experiencing happiness in the life at one point. It is not quite easy to provide a straight forward definition of happiness which can be used in general at any time when there is reference to be made concerni8ng happiness. However, happiness may be said to be simply a form of mood which is affirmative and tends to cover a certain variety of emotions which may range from being delighted or even satisfied and conversely (Spoors, et al, 2007, pp.5). The above definition is totally opposed to the dichotomy, because the dichotomy is divided into two parts, for example, joy and sorrow, which are mutually exclusive and simultaneously create a whole. A proven example is a wedding the brideÃ¢â¬â¢s. Mother cries for daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s wedding, but simultaneously she has joy in it. This happiness is associated with feelings and emotions that people feel the depending on the situation in which they find themselves. In correlation with this, it can be accomplished of Ã¢â¬Å"happiness and unhappiness cannot be viewed as opposite or mutually exclusiveÃ¢â¬ (Spoors, et al, 2007, pp.5). Ã Ã Ã Ã According to the assumptions of this concept, the pursuit of happiness, which you want each person is driven by human activities, and at the same time a source of satisfaction, fulfillment, and sometimes a sense of success. Therefore, the benefits associated with happiness include; better health, well-being, a lot greater activity level, willingness to help, and better relationships with others. People who are considered to be unhappy tend not to have the above mentioned emotions and they rarely display such emotions since they have not been able to experience happiness, or even the activities which causes happiness in human beings (Spoors, et al, 2007, pp.5). Ã Ã Ã Ã When a question is asked about what makes hu8mna beings happy, most of the people would put main focus on the kind of thoughts they have, the kind of relationships that they have which can include close relationships and those that are not close. Furthermore, the question on what makes one happy will also make one to put focus on the brains since it is the one that generates the thoughts which in turn are closely related to the relationships that people have. The factors which act as the determinants of happiness have nature and to some extent have nurture. A healthy lifestyle and a happy brain this nurture issues, because Ã¢â¬Å"in order for us to have a sense of wellbeing and happiness, our brains and bodies need a consistent source of food and oxygenÃ¢â¬ (Spoors at al., 2007, pp.26 Ã¢â¬â 9, material). Ã Ã Ã Ã Therefore, it can be agreed that the main causes of happiness which have been suggested as most common include the relationships, the brain and the thoughts. Spoors (2007) observes that for human beings to have a sense of happiness or even well being, they must be able to live a healthy lifestyle as well as have constant supply of oxygen for the functioning of the body and the brain. Furthermore, Ã¢â¬Å"Many people on high protein, high fat, low carbohydrate diets have reported unusually high feelings of anger, tension and depressionÃ¢â¬ , as observed by Spoors (2007). This means that for one to feel happy or have the sense of well being, they must have sufficient balanced diet and also constant supply of oxygen for a healthy body and a healthy brain. Ã Ã Ã Ã From research conducted by Davidson, people inherit some genes which make one have a genetic predisposition of happiness to a certain level, although this does not mean that there are people who are born unhappy or gloom while others are born happy (Spoors, et al, pp.26-9). According to Shakespeare (2005 edition), Ã¢â¬Å"There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it soÃ¢â¬ , meaning that what one thinks greatly contributes to them being happy or not. People tend to focus on negative aspects of life whenever they feel they have low spirits. This in turn affects their happiness and instead leaves them feeling much worse. The natural environment where one lives and the kind of nurture and experiences in life contributes to the way one thinks and influences the thoughts that one has, which in turn have been observed to influence the happiness that an individual will display. Ã Ã Ã Ã This clearly indicates that the thoughts that people have play a major role in them being happy or unhappy. Ellen and Judy (1976) conducted a research and they found out that when people are able to control small issues that affect their life, they are in better position to enhance their happiness (Spoors et al, 2007, pp.53-7). From research which was conducted by Richard Layard (2005), it was observed that there are seven major factors which influence happiness in human beings but the main factor that was identified was close relationships. This same idea was supported by Robert Lane (2000, p. 6), who identified close relationships with families and friends to be great factor that increased human happiness (Spoors et al, 2007, pp.83-5). The views presented by the various researchers regarding the causes or the predictors of happiness are quite convincing considering the kind of research that they have presented is in-depth. Human beings do things because of how th ey feel and most of the actions are more influenced by nature and nurture, which in turn determines the happiness that human beings display. Therefore, it can be said that nature and nurture are both important determinants or the predictors of the happiness of human beings because they all have direct influence on the thoughts, the brain activities and the kind of relationships which people have during their lifetime. References Phoenix, A. (2007) Ã¢â¬ËIdentities and diversitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ in Miell, D., Phoenix, A. and Thomas, K. (eds)Ã Mapping Psychology, p.Ã 104. Spoors, P., Finlay, L. and Dyer, E. (2007)Ã Starting with Psychology p.Ã 5; 26-9; 53-7; 83-5 Source document
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Bodily mutilation to achieve the goal of ultimate beauty for women resides within every culture in the world. An average American way of bodily mutilation to gain beauty is through plastic surgery. As for Africa, women believe having a long neck symbolizes their beauty and status within their village. In some parts of China, the women believe the smaller your feet are the more desirable you become. Within the Mae Hong Son area of northwest Thailand, the women of the tribes are more commonly known as the, Ã¢â¬Å"Long-Necks. The women in these areas are known for adorning brass rings around their necks, The rings on the neck reach from the clavicle up to beneath the chin, and these rings are held very tightly by the bone structure from clavicle to chin. This neck ring adornment is started when the girls are five or six years old and the neck grows longer as additional rings are added with each passing year. It is from this practice that this tribe has gained the name of Ã¢â¬Å"Long-Nec ksÃ¢â¬ . Some women wear thirty-seven brass rings around the neck and this is considered ideal.Not only do they wear the rings around their necks they will wear them around the arms and the legs, and for this tribe the rings are the most prominent sign of female beauty and status. Ã¢â¬Å"Lotus FeetÃ¢â¬ is an ancient Chinese bodily mutilation of binding the feet to make the size much smaller. to the restructure the feet by the breaking of the arch and four smaller toes on each foot. After the initial binding procedure, usually around the age of seven, the feet would remain tightly bound with long cloth strips until the feet were no longer growing.The ideal foot consisted of three features, which was the length of three inches, a cleft between the heel and the sole, which was wanted to be around two to three inched deep, and that the feet appeared to be an extension of the leg, instead of platforms for the legs. Binding of the feet symbolized a lily or lotus flower because of the similarities in looks, if the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s feet were bound, they would be comparable to the grace and delicateness of the flower.If a woman had a natural size foot similar to a mans, it meant she was the opposite of grace and beauty such as a man would be characterized. Neck rings and feet binding pose serious negative effects to a human body. Neck rings caused a woman who adorned them to never be able to look up or down. The mobility of the neck was restricted where they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t even be able to drink from a cup without using a straw. Stretching of the neck pulled the muscles rendering them useless, to the point were if they were removed, the woman would not be able to hold her own head up.Feet binding can cause the woman to be nearly crippled, they have trouble getting out of chairs, doing activties on their feet, and have hip and spinal injuries throughout life. Although Neck-rings and Lotus feet are very different practices of bodily mutilation, they create the same de sired effect. These practices are to convey a womans beauty through a painful act, creating a falsified version of what society believed to be beautiful. Every culture shares this common theme throughout history, although it may be painful and odd, it continues on through our culture today.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Expensive Books At University Wisconsin Milwaukee - Assignment Example The current situation in the university is that there are many items in the library but the students find them beyond their reach due to their expensive nature. The affordability of the textbook is beyond the reach of many students and the situation is accelerated by the current economic inflation. This means that learning is jeopardized and improvement of education in the school will lag behind. The price of books and supplies in the university is $1000. This contributes to a larger part of the school fee making it the costly factor in the student's life. For resident students, the total cost for one academic year totals up to $18775 whereas a non-resident student pays up to $28504. From this figure, tuition for resident students totals up to $8091 and tuition fee for nonresident student totals up to $17820. This shows how the high costs of the books affect the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s fee, which may be costly to some and will be a great hindrance to effective learning. Estimates of the Number of Students to Buy Books The number of students in a particular institution is important in establishing the value of books to be bought. It also is important in estimating the limit to which students may be added to enable them to afford the books. The books should be adequate to facilitate each student to be in reach of the books anytime they are required to use them. Evaluation of Price against Potential Students to Buy Books The prices of books strongly depend on the number of students willing and able to buy the books.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
The behaviour of the young towards luxury products - Essay Example Since youth coming from rich families can easily afford costly items of luxury, gradually, a competitive attitude grows among people to acquire most famous and acclaimed items like perfumes, watches, goggles etc. Rather than collecting items for showing their economic worth, youth coming from middle class families are more inclined towards obtaining the items which, apart from being serviceable as symbol of status, should be able to pay them back the price paid for them by their proper utilization. The article (Neelakantan,1999) describing American youth writes Ã¢â¬Å"Changing luxury spending patterns like this arent unusual among todays new affluent shoppers who didnt inherit their wealth and didnt necessarily grow up privileged. Many have made their money in technology, through entrepreneurship or because of sheer talent in the sports and entertainment fields. And while this new crowd is probably spending more, it is taking the conspicuous out of consumption--showing less, with more style.Ã¢â¬ Edwin Colyer (2005,ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s rich, redefining luxury brands) writes Ã¢â¬Å"However you want to define luxury, though, one thing is certain: it is now commonplace and affordable. Disposable income has risen dramatically over the past 30 years and there is more money to spend on "extras." Luxury purchases are for celebrating an occasion, self reward or to show off status.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"According to the Census Bureau, there are currently 25.2 million teens, ages 13-18, in the U.S. Their purchasing power is substantial: If you add part-time job earnings, allowance and the average amount of their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s money they spend every year, teens comprise a $195 billion market. Over a third of teens hold part-time jobs, working 18 hours a week, on average, and earning $483 per month.Ã¢â¬ The role of spontaneous liking or disliking towards luxury, though not
Wave power renewable energy - Essay Example In the similar manner, wind energy converts the wind to energy. On the other hand, non renewable energy resources utilize fossil fuel resources like coal, petroleum oil and natural gas to produce energy. Non renewable energy resources produce immense amount of green house emissions. Non renewable energy resources are going to end one day but renewable energy resources are not going t end till the end of the earth. The prices of oil and gas are rising day by day and renewable energy resources are free for all. Wave energy is also a renewable form of energy has several advantages over on renewable energy resources. Wave energy converts the hydrodynamic energy of the waves to a usable energy form (mostly electricity). Waves are formed due to the impact of the high winds on the surface of oceans. When a wave id formed an immense amount of water is forced to displace. The displacement of the water can be changes to energy. Wave energy is a renewable form of energy as it produces no green house gas emission and requires no fuel to generate energy (Henderson, 2006, p.271). Several methods are utilized to convert the wave energy to electricity. One method of the wave energy conversion is to utilize the high surge of air blasting through an enclosed air trapping body. The high surge of air rotates the air turbine with an immense power. The turbine is directly connected to an alternator r generator that converts the mechanical energy to electrical energy (Australian Ethical, 2014). Other methods include the hydraulic pressure generation, hydroelectric turbine generation and linear generator. The power generation method utilizing the hydraulics captures the wave energy by using the submerged wave columns. When a wave comes, water is hydraulically pressured by the water columns to move the turbine blades directly from the high pressurized water or utilized to be filled in a reservoir. The water from
Monday, August 26, 2019
History of Interpretation paper - Essay Example This is a pointer to the progressive mission which Jesus had. He was not on earth for an instance but to carry out a continuous mission. Knowing that the questioner may have tuned to out to be hypothetical as was seen in Luke 10: 29 where one asked about whom his neighbor was, Jesus gave his answer to the question by posing a personal challenge. He calls on the individuals in the crowd to act in a way which will show that they are saved. In verse 24, Luke gives the condition for getting to eternal life by stating that people will Ã¢â¬Å"struggle to enterÃ¢â¬ the kingdom. The term agonizomai implies that Ã¢â¬Å"the fewÃ¢â¬ will have to cope with Ã¢â¬Å"the manyÃ¢â¬ for entry through a limited space. The struggle will be compounded by the short duration of time that those seeking to enter will have. Luke goes ahead to talk about the Ã¢â¬Å"narrow doorÃ¢â¬ . In this verse, it may appear as though Luke has lost contrast as he does not talk of the wide gate which is seen in Matthew 7:1. However, this may have been intentionally done to provide a quick answer to the audience about the process of getting into the kingdom. Burns furthers this line of thought by noting that interpretation of the verse requires considering of two issues (588). First, is the aspect of entering the place being talked of. From the text, it is plain that Luke is talking about entering the Kingdom of God. After stating that the audience should Ã¢â¬Å"strive to enter through the narrow doorÃ¢â¬ , he goes ahead to allude to a master of a particular house who stands and shuts the door to bar others from entering. The alternative to entering the narrow gate which Luke is referring to is found in the book of Mathew where it is stated Ã¢â¬Å"Enter by the narrow gate. For the gate is wide and the way is easy that leads to destructionÃ¢â¬ (Matt. 7:13). Luke goes ahead to state that as the audience strive to enter the narrow gate, there are obstacles that they have to overcome so as
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Re-introducing Wendy's into Singapore - Dissertation Example These factors have also enhanced the profitability of the food and beverages industry of this country. The popularity of Western fast food among the population is also increasing and hence, many global fast food companies like McDonald and Burger Kings has entered in this market. WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s entered in Singapore market during 1980s but due to unfavourable forces, it had to withdraw from Singapore in 1997. However, WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s has again entered in Singapore market with the collaboration of Kopitiam Group who has bought WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s franchises. This paper attempts to evaluate the success of WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s in Singapore market after its re-entry and to offer relevant recommendations for reintroducing its brand in Singapore. WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s is the third largest fast food chain in the global food and beverages industry and it is very famous for its old fashioned hamburgers. In other global markets, WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s has been successful but when it entered in Singapore market during 198 0s, it was unable to survive. Now, in order to make successful re-entry, the company needs to reposition its brand image among the target consumer groups by implementing proper branding strategies and conducting brand awareness in the market. In this respect, this paper presents a detailed literature review focusing on multiple models and theories of branding strategies. There are four major sections in literature review which includes brand reintroduction and repositioning, brand awareness and its importance, building brand image and different models for framing branding strategies. In order to draft branding strategies, two dimension strategy and Ansoff model is very useful to determine the market situation and multiple strategic directions. Promotional strategy is very important aspect in branding strategy and hence, implementation of integrated marketing communication is the most suitable in this respect. In order to meet the objectives of this research paper, it is necessary to generate key information and hence, an extensive research has been conducted. For measuring the feasibility of WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s re-entry in Singapore market, primary as well and secondary data has been analysed. Secondary data analyses have disclosed that due to growing economic condition and increasing popularity of western fast foods, F&B industry of Singapore is growing at decent rate. The profitability of fast food outlets is the higher that other F&B sectors like restaurants and other food caterers. The primary data analyses have disclosed that new consumers want to taste WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s food as most of them have aware of this brand. Primarily, they look for high quality product with fast and efficient services. The consumer loyalty rate is high in Singapore consumers and most of them prefer the brand like McDonald, MOS Burger, Burger Kings etc. Therefore, there is a great opportunity for WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s success, if it can develop its own base of loyal consumers by providing high quality prod
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Employment training - Essay Example In contrast to this, both government and employers are still faced with several challenges on the level of expertise of such staff and the total contributions achieved by the children from such experiences (Buchen 2005, Tassoni; et al.2002). While there is still need to adjust staff to children ratio, the government still maintains its policy that, the training staffs must be holders of either Certificate grade III or Diploma after completing the preliminary training in childcare practices. This has created a lot of challenges to the employers on a continual demand for trained teachers (Reitz 2004). Currently, the Australian government policy has generated much concern about the impact of insufficient number of childcare staffs and the trainers of young children. The main point of concern is that, in future if this trend continues then there would be a very big deficit of workers needed to provide education to the young children. Besides, the potential demand in institutions for trai ners, consequence is being felt by the institutional owners who have resorted to sourcing for childcare staffs internationally as stiff policy by the Australian government bites to underplay the education industry for young children (OECD 2001). Considering some of the initiatives by the Australian government, for the early child development staffs to either, attain Diploma levels or source for more expatriates from other countries has been touted. However, less significant impact has been received because other countries are also in dire need of such people and being a competitive industry, most skilled personnelÃ¢â¬â¢s only seek opportunity in places where good rewards in terms of remunerations can be achieved certainly, in places such as Asia or the United States. Furthermore, the demand for early childhood education teachers may have also been created in their countries of origin (McKenzie and Santiago 2005). According to ABC news report, the new requirements, which have been put in place by the Australian government on the childhood graduate trainees, has forced most of institutional owners to consider staffs oversees. Mr. Colbert childhood education staff from Majura Children Park Canberra explains that, the policy has interfered with the recruitment locally since, most of the graduates still miss to have the additional requirements of the Diploma requirements subjecting the organizations to consider international staffs. Another point of concern has been noted by Ranstad education recruiter, who has given observation that in several vacancy advertisements, most of the potential applicants would be found to have come from the Diaspora (ABC News 2013). Some of the organizations allied to the government have embraced the reforms to have all childhood education teachers to advance the level of training inline line with the current policy. However, most of the teachers who are currently working see it as wastage of time because the syllabus being taught at those levels had actually been covered at the undergraduate. In addition, the training is not meant for free as it comes at an additional cost impacting unnecessary expenses on what is perceived to have been learnt earlier on at the university by teachers in practice (OECD 2006). Some of the national requirements considered to be of greeter challenge to this education industry are amongst: Half the staffs at every daycare center must be a holder of diploma in early childhood e
Friday, August 23, 2019
Management acounting - Essay Example 220.5 (A) W7. Material M7 usage variance = ((2,100 ?0.68) Ã¢â¬â 1,470) ?1.75 =?73.5 (A) W8. Direct labour rate variance = (7.2 ?525) Ã¢â¬â 3,675 =?105.0 (F) W9. Direct labour efficiency variance = ((2,100 ?14/60) Ã¢â¬â 525) ? 7.2 =?252.0 (A) W10. Variable overhead expenditure variance = (2.1 ?525) Ã¢â¬â 1,260 =?157.5 (A) W11. Variable overhead efficiency variance = ((2,100 ? 14/60) Ã¢â¬â 525) ? 2.1 =?73.5 (A) Budgeted fixed production overhead = 497 ? 9= ?4,473 W12 Fixed production overhead expenditure variance = 4,473 Ã¢â¬â 4,725 = ?252.0 (A) Standard hours for actual production = 2,100 ?14/60 = 490 hours W13 Fixed production overhead efficiency variance = (490 Ã¢â¬â 525) ? 9 = ?315 (A) Fixed production overhead capacity variance = (497 Ã¢â¬â 525) ?9 = ?252 (F) b) Discuss how the operating statement can assist managers in (1) Controlling variable cost Variable cost refers to operating expenses that vary in ratio to the business activity. Examples of variable cost include in our case include Direct material, direct labor and variable production overhead. Operating statement does assist managers in controlling variable cost in the following ways. Measuring actual cost marks the beginning of controlling cost. This is followed by variance calculation that is meant to show the difference actual and budgeted/standard costs. Managers will be given these reports on variances since they have got duty to use the report on the day to day running of the business (Riahi, 2001). The manager can use the report given to him to decide whether the company needs to take action of bringing actual costs back. The operating statements for our case will play a role in providing information to managers that helps in decision-making procedure (Coombs, et, al 2005). The statement helps in quantifying the effect of the difference in volume between actual sales and budgeted sales. This means that comparison between budgeted cost of the actual output and the actual cost of the actual output will be made hence it helps to differentiate clearly between actual and planned performance. This helps management by exclusion because these mangers can now turn their energy on other important areas so that they can achieve the best results in relation to achieving actual performance. Variable costs do get affected in control terms during short period of time hence an operating system for the previous month indicating variable cost variances will outline areas where the organization needs action (Coombs, et, al 2005). For instance, managers can improve labour efficiency using different ways e.g. by training or reducing staff actions that do not aid production process. For our case, direct labour efficiency variance of ?252.0, which is 7.2%, could be reduced. Direct labour variance is given by the difference between labour flexed budget and actual results. The managers can break this down into labour rate variance and labour efficiency variance. This will help the company know what they paid for hours they actually used in comparison to what they budgeted for (Coombs, et, al 2005). On the other hand labour efficiency variance will indicate how much labour the organization used compared to what it thought it could have used. This can be illustrated from the analysis of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operating statement for instance we are given direct labour rate variance to be ?105 which is favorable according to Ash plc producers. On the other hand, direct labour efficiency variance in the same company is ?252 which indicates adversity in the running
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Intermediate certificate in Human Resource Management Essay Is the criticism of HR in the article justified? Yes and no! The quote in the article from Dona Roche-Tarry is fairly damning. She states the HR team should be equally responsible as they work alongside the CEO and MDs to recommend strategies for pay and bonuses. Whilst HR may work alongside the senior decision makers, they can only make recommendations. The ultimate decision and power lies with the CEO. However, another perspective could be that HR need to be influencers, and should be more efficient at managing upwards. What are the main accusations being laid at the door of HR in this scenario in terms of its competence? Not being responsive Lack of knowledge Being unethical What are the implications for HR here in relation to professional ethics, integrity and confidentiality? The main implication is being seen to be unethical to stakeholders. This could result in HR being seen as not communicating and could have a negative impact on how people perceive HR to be importance wise. Integrity is also damaged by not being seen to have provided a voice in relation to political equality. How might HR been able to influence the situation more? By managing relationships better across hierarchies, and also by forward planning, being market savvy, and risk management. Predicting the issuesÃ before they arose and either finding ways to avoid them or developing damage limitation scenarios and plans. What other key behaviours from the CIPDÃ¢â¬â¢s HR professional map do you think are critical here for HR to display? Skilled influencer Courage to challenge Personally credible Collaborative What learning can HR take away from this experience/situation? The main learning is to be more responsive, and take more of an active role in discussions regarding important issues such as renumeration Being seen to consult stakeholders and provide senior stakeholders with a more accurate company and market view. Improved communication across all levels needs to be implemented.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Quality of Life for the Patient and Family Essay Quality of life has a different meaning for everyone. Many personal thoughts and feelings can come into play when caring for others during the end stages of life. However as a nurse and caregiver, these opinions must be put aside at this significant time. For some health care providers, we may feel that keeping the patient comfortable and having them surrounded by family is most important. However, for the patient, personal culture, lifestyle and value for one self as well as a sense of independence in handling this time alone is most imperative. Therefor a nurse must consider the individuals past experiences, present lifestyle and personal hopes in which they choose to live in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns at this stage. One must meet not only the physical needs of the patient but the psychosocial demands in this sensitive time of need. Seeking aggressive medical treatment vs. palliative care is something that is very personal and differs from individual to individual. NursesÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions and suggestions of the Ã¢â¬Å"best careÃ¢â¬ should not be voiced to the patient or family, even if asked directly. For Mrs. Thomas, time also plays an important role. She is young and may have many other worries than those of an older age experience in preparing for end of life. A nurse must consider what areas of life are important to her and what is the relative importance of each of these areas. Personal perception that counting on family support is huge, but may not be possible in Mrs. ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢ situation as her children live out of town. STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE The nurse should look at several strategies that directly impact the patient as well as the family. Quality of life not only looks at the health status the patient but those directly involved in the care of the patient. This encompasses a broader set of planning including finances, housing, and employment. This will have a direct impact on the entire family. Three important strategies that are helpful to relieve overall stress and promote optimal coping skills include: 1) patient awareness of disease process, 2) available support from healthcare providers and 3) addressing physical as well as the psychosocial needs of the patient. Healthcare professionals must be prepared and speak directly with the patient and family when it is determined best to the physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s ability, that the identified disease of breast cancer will cause death. Advance planning and preparation may be helpful in dying well if Mrs. Thomas is more aware about her status of disease. Physicians and nurses must change the plan of aggressive medical treatments of curing the disease of breast cancer and concentrate providing support and a comfortable well being of the deteriorating disease process. This in turn should provide a plan of care for relief of pain, contentment to the patient and focus on the overall whole being of quality of life. The homecare team can include doctors, nurses, home health aides, social workers, and clergy as well as trained volunteers. Most team members provide on-call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to deliver support. The patient and family should feel the comfort in calling these resources at anytime. The nurse must remind Mrs. Thomas and her husband that they are not Ã¢â¬Å"botheringÃ¢â¬ any team member by asking for assistance. The team must always work together and communicate the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s goals for end-of-life care. It is important for all to realize this is very individualized for each patient and family member. Each individual strategy should include caring for the whole person physically, emotionally, socially and spiritually. It important for the team to develop strengths based perspectives of psychosocial interventions and listen to what the patient and family have to say to enable them to cope better. In doing so, the team must also communicate on each encounter with Mrs. Thomas and family as well as each other to assure that her and the husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are being met. HOLISTIC CARE A holistic nursing care plan in valuable in delivering care to the entire person in supporting the physical, mental, spiritual, emotional, social and environmental needs. With this approach, nursing care needs to move away from viewing Mrs. Thomas as merely a diagnosis and treating her as a whole person. Nursing goals should be to develop immediate trust with the patient and family, provide comfort, supportive care, and symptom management. This can be achieved by effective communication and providing a calm, relaxed setting for Mrs. Thomas. Allowing her to speak openly and honestly about her feelings and emotions of grief, physical complaints such as pain, nausea, and difficulty sleeping is a good way to start to develop a trusting nurse/patient relationship. As a nurse, one must be supportive and be willing to listen openly. Once Mrs. Thomas begins to express these types of things, the nurse must review and evaluate every visit to improve specific concerns with her. More importantly, healthcare providers must display an openness to hear new concerns and prioritize the needs of the patient and family. FUNCTIONAL ABILITY Assessments to maintain the self functional ability for Mrs. Thomas should include creating a plan to achieve realistic goals and allow self care as long as possible. This in turn can give control back to Mrs. Thomas, help raise confidence and value her quality of life. Mrs. ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢ physical, social and environmental conditions should also be considered to help her care for herself. Discussing the 24/7 availability of visits from registered nurses and social workers, involving family and friends or volunteers that can help with running errands and meal preparation for adequate dietary intake, and discussing appropriate medical equipment to assist with ADLs such as performing personal hygiene can prove to be helpful. PROVIDING ADDITIONAL CARE When self-care is no longer possible, the importance of more frequent nurse and/or social worker visits, and interaction of clergy is valuable. In addition, further involvement of additional family, friends, home health aides or volunteers to assist not only with running errands, meal preparation and assistance with ADLs but being present in the home for longer periods to care directly for Mrs. Thomas becomes more imperative. The nurse can assist in making sure appropriate DME equipment is in the home. In addition, this turns out to be a time when additional emotional support is of great concern for Mr. Thomas. CHRONIC DEPRESSION Mr. Thomas already suffers from chronic depression and now has to endure immense and continuous stress to care for his wife with advanced breast cancer. Over time this takes a toll his health, ability to work, finances, and their own personal and family needs. Involvement of not only the nurse, but also social worker and bereavement counselor can help Mr. Thomas tremendously. Encouraging him to take his medications will help both him and his wife. Also, reassurance that it is okay to want quiet time and allowing others to help to care for his wife should be verbalized to him in a caring manner. Taking some of the financial worries away from Mr. Thomas may help as well. The social worker can discuss resources that are of no cost from community volunteer organizations and review the reimbursement of covered services from the insurance organization at the beginning and in ongoing care of his wife. Sharing the right information with the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s family is very important and can assist in better coping. Again, the home care team must offer an environment that provides the openness to hear all concerns and overall needs of not only the patient but also her family.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Successes And Failures Of The Obama Presidency Politics Essay President Obama is seen as a successful President according to the website Politifact.com, out of the 502 promises he made during the 2008 election campaign he has so far kept 134, compromised on 41, broken 40, stalled on 69 and still has 220 in the works. He may, therefore, be seen to be a successful President. However, this was not reflected in the mid-term elections where the Democrats lost a considerable number of seats within the Senate and lost their majority within the House. In this essay I will assess the successes and failures of the Obama presidency against what he promised during his election campaign of 2008 and during his subsequent State of the Union address. I will also judge some of his successes and failures by reference to opinion polls from various news outlets, particularly whether the public approved of his handling of certain situations such as unemployment and the BP oil disaster. I will first assess his domestic successes and failures then his foreign policy successes and failures, while assessing what it means to his presidency specifically and the American political system. President Obama knew when he came into office that his first priority was to fix the economy after the recession of 2008-2009. He introduced the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 which provided a stimulus to the country; it was split into three parts at a cost of $787 billion. One-third in tax cuts and tax credits to help overcome the hardships of the recession, such as an increase in food stamp benefits and unemployment benefits; one-third on the infrastructure of the country, which included projects on transport and highway and bridge construction and repair. Finally, one-third on state stabilization to stop the states cutting essential services that the public need, such as teachers.Ã Ã President Obama also bailed out the car industry, specifically Chrysler and GM, at a cost of $17.4 billion.Ã Ã The necessity to save the car industry was evident as it could have led to a double dip recession. GM alone employed 300,000 workers within the United States, an d if it was to fall into insolvent administration it would have had a large impact on the economy. President Obama also initiated Cash for Clunkers scheme in which owners of cars could trade them in for more fuel efficient cars. This was very popular as the initial $1 billion in subsidies for this program was supposed to last for 90 days but actually only lasted for 9.Ã Ã He also brought in measures to help nine million homeowners facing foreclosure on their homes and who could not afford to repay their mortgages. The purpose was to offer mortgage companies subsidies and incentives to help troubled home owners.Ã Ã Obama also brought in regulation to control the banks after they started making profits again. He stated: We are not going to let Wall Street take the money and runÃ Ã and imposed conditions before the banks could escape George W Bushs Troubled Asset Relief Programme (TARP) in which money was given to the banks in total costing $700 billion.Ã Ã Even though the stimulus was intended to create jobs, they were not planned to be created until 2010-2011. In 2009 unemployment was 10% of the workforce and as of March 2011 the unemployment rate still hovers around the 10% mark.Ã Ã Overall Obama has kept most of his promises regarding the economy, with very few promises broken.Ã Ã However, in a poll of how he handled the economy his approval rating is only at 45% (January 2011) with 54% disapproving.Ã Ã This shows that the public thinks he is handling the economy quite badly. Critics have pointed out that he has done well on the economy with Nouriel Roubini in an article in the Financial Times pointing out that he has inherited the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression and that the stimulus did the right thing early and avoided another depressionÃ Ã Without the stimulus Jonathan Alter makes the point that 8.5 million workers would have lost their jobs. He has done well in regulating the banks and TARP with the loans with added interest that were made having now been paid back. The figures are seen as impressive as instead of $700 billion being owed to the Government, the Government is owed just under $100 billion. The Clash for Clunkers programme is estimated to have saved 120,000 jobs.Ã Ã The auto industry has also been greatly improved creating 55,000 new jobs and GM paying back its bailout money five years ahead of schedule.Ã Ã Obama recalls that It wasnt an easy callÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦But we decided that while providing additional assistance was a risk, the far greater risk to families and communities across our country was to do nothing. Ã I knew this wasnt a popular decision. But it was the right one.Ã Ã The way he dealt with the housing crisis was seen to go not quite so smoothly as of the 9 million homeowners the plan hoped to assist, only 3 million were actually helped. This was due to the fact that the legislation was directed at people who the Obama administration saw as having a good reason to stay in their homes; these people often worked full time and had received sub prime mortgages. The legislation helped stop house prices falling by the predicted 20% and instead increased them by 5% although house prices are still of considerable concern to the US economy.Ã Ã Where Obama has failed is in job creation. It is at its worst since 1982. Newt Gingrich of the Republican Party commented If were still at 9 or 10 percent unemployment in 2012, this is a one term president no matter how articulate he is. The unemployment rate is furthermore one of the factors why the Democrats failed in the mid-term elections losing control of the House.Ã Ã As Alter states, for Obama even to be considered a success he must bring down unemployment.Ã Ã Obama has been able to pass all of his economic legislation quite easily due to his previous super majorities within the House and the Senate after the election of 2008. However, as he has now reached the mid-terms and the Republican party have a majority hold within the House, he will have a much difficult time as the Republican party are likely to resist his legislative proposals. This is becoming apparent in the differences in Congress over this years budget proposals and points to the difficulty when any president is faced with his party being in a minority within Congress. One of Obamas major pledges was to reform the ailing healthcare system, as it would greatly increase the countrys debt. Healthcare spending has grown to such an extent that it is predicted to rise from one-sixth of GDP in 2009 to one-third in 2035, and by 2080 nearly half of U.S. GDP would be spent on healthcare according to the Congressional Budget Office.Ã Ã Healthcare premiums had also doubled and the numbers of uninsured Americans would surpass 50 million. Families have told of being bankrupted by paying for the medical care, and of the bad treatment from insurance companies.Ã Ã Obama and a Democrat Congress implemented a healthcare plan which contained new federal regulation of insurance, help for states on Medicaid, an increase in the affordability of healthcare and higher fees on employers who do not provide insurance.Ã Ã This was met with fierce opposition from some on the right of the political spectrum such that no Republican congressmen voted for it , mainly encouraged by those from the extreme right of the political spectrum, such as the Tea Party movement. The healthcare plan was seen as a success as it was one of Obamas key campaign promises to ensure that some sort of healthcare plan became law, and he again mentioned in his 2010 State of the Union Address that he wanted to implement some healthcare reform.Ã Ã He got his wish with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. Although seen as a success in that he got the Democratic Congress to pass the necessary legislation, it proved unpopular with the public with one poll giving 38% approving of the healthcare plan and 53% opposing it.Ã Ã However, different news organisations reported different numbers at separate times. President Obama had to rely on his presidential powers of persuasion and bargaining to get this legislation through Congress, as he influenced Senators, House members and even tried unsuccessfully to get Republicans on his side. At various times he tried to influence public opinion that such legislation was necessary. The legislation is also subject to numerous court challenges with Judge Roger Vinson in the Federal District of Pensalcola, Florida ruling that the whole legislation was void, not just the provisions for compulsory insurance.Ã Ã It is likely that the Supreme Court will eventually be called upon to rule on the legislation. The importance of a president leading on controversial legislation and using all of his powers of persuasion to carry Congress and the public with him is demonstrated by the healthcare legislation. President Obamas other domestic policy initiatives include bringing in legislation on the repeal of dont ask dont tell, which stops the military from infringing on the rights of homosexual citizens if they choose to join the military; his education reforms which gave the power to close poor performing schools (which Bill Gates rated him a A for); and the equal pay legislation which promises equal pay for jobs that have equal standing. Obamas biggest domestic disaster came with the BP oil spill. Obama could be said to have handled the BP oil spill poorly as he was slow to respond and criticised for not being more emotive on the issue, saying in an interview that This is not a theatre.Ã Ã Polls at the time showed a low approval rating of just 41%.Ã Ã Nevertheless once the issue was resolved, it was quickly forgotten about by the media and the Government. President Obamas foreign policy is one of both successes and failures. One of Obamas main campaign promises was to withdraw from Iraq which he successfully completed on the 31 August 2010 with only a handful of troops staying in Iraq to advise Iraqi forces.Ã Ã Afghanistan was the most controversial foreign policy decision during his presidency with Dick Cheney accusing him of dithering. Obama after much deliberation sent 30,000 more troops into Afghanistan with the decision to withdraw some troops in summer 2011. The President of Afghanistan accepted cash bribes from Iran which caused embarrassment to the Obama administration and General McChrystal and his staff criticised the Commander in Chief in a magazine article, calling him unimpressive and uncomfortable and intimidated. He was dismissed and replaced by General David Petraeus. Obama has made positive steps to improve U.S.-Russia relations which saw a dispute with the Bush administration over the missile defence system i n Eastern Europe which Russia strongly opposed. Obama scrapped this idea and began talks with the Russians and these resulted in good levels of cooperation with Russia over issues such as Iran and North Korea, and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) which was approved by the Senate and became effective on the 5 February 2011.Ã Ã 28He made the aid funding to Pakistan conditional on its controlling terrorist activities. Obama has been successful in banning torture as an interrogation technique. He has been criticised from the right as being slow in supporting the Iranian uprisings in 2009. However, he was said to have exercised restraint on the issue as he did not want the Iranian government claiming that it was an American sponsored uprising.Ã Ã Again he was criticised over his handling of the popular uprisings for democracy in 2011 in the Arab nations, such as Egypt and Tunisia, with Christopher Hitchens calling the slow response to these uprisings as a dithering responseÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦[which has] been both cynical and naive.Ã Ã The same too could be said about Obamas response to the Libyan rebellion. However, it is clear that Obama wanted a multilateral response, particularly from the Arab League, and UN approval before rushing into another war.Ã Ã Obama has tried to enhance relations with other countries, unsuccessfully in the case of Iran and North Korea, but successfully with Europe, China and more particularly with Russia. His meeting with the Russian President in June, 2010 at the White House was said to mark the highest point of Russian-U.S. relations since Bill Clinton went to Moscow to mark Victory Day.Ã Ã Obama is said to be badly at odds with Israel with the Financial Times stating: Mr. Obama initially played tough with Mr. Netanyahu but then backed downSettlement expansion puts out of reach an agreement on borders The US veto at the UN badly damaged Mr. Obamas credibility. The resolution, after all, reflected the White Houses own stated position..Mr. Obama must choose between prevarication and the chance to sustain US influence in the worlds most troubled and strategically vital region.Ã Ã His biggest failures to date are Afghanistan and Guantanamo Bay. Obama acknowledges that progress in Afghanistan is limited and fragile although there has been success in resisting the Taliban and Al-Qaida.Ã Ã It is still unpopular with the American public with just 31% of the American public thinking Afghanistan is worth fighting for.Ã Ã Obamas most problematic issue comes with Guantanamo Bay with the website Politifact.com listing it as a broken promise. Congress and the President remaining at odds over where to put the prisoners due to the refusal of Congress to allow detainees to be imprisoned within the United States . On the 7 March 2011 Obama signed an executive order making a number of changes to his policies, with a number of news outlets noting that it is an acknowledgement that he could not keep his campaign promise of closing Guantanamo Bay.Ã Ã President Obama has overall seen far more successes than failures during his Presidency although he has yet to convince the American people. Although this could all change with the losses during the mid-term elections as he will find it a lot harder to pass his legislation. His recent reforms are under threat from the Republicans, such as Healthcare and environmental legislation which they want to scrap.Ã Ã The President has been nicknamed no drama Obama but as the Financial Times states this is often perceived as him having a sense of aloofness and on the national and international stage a sense of unwillingness to lead.Ã Ã At the end of last week 64 senators, 32 Republican and 32 democrats, asked the President to lead on a comprehensive plan to deal with fiscal policy. As the Financial Times points out in a leader, Mr Obama should be embarrassed that the Senate finds it necessary to ask him to do his job.Ã Ã The importance of a president providing leadership is again emphasised. His priorities should be to deal with the issues facing Afghanistan, the US debt burden and the unemployment crisis, because as Newt Gingrich stated he will have a hard time becoming re-elected in 2012 if he does not solve these issues. These issues will no doubt have to be grappled with by any president elected in 2012.
Career Biography of Jack Welch Management guru Jack Welch, former CEO of General Electric, has been instrumental in forming todayÃ¢â¬â¢s top business management leaders by imparting effective knowledge in leadership management; he is widely credited with transforming GE into a multibillion-dollar conglomerate. I. Jack Welch Ã¢â¬â Who is the man? A. Biography Ã¢â¬â 1.Born in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1935. a. Growing up Ã¢â¬â The family lived in one of the poorer neighborhoods of Salem, Massachusetts. Welch has said that his mother was the most important influence on him, cheering him on in sports and academics, and always encouraging him to strive for more b. Schooling Ã¢â¬â Welch continued to pursue his education at the University of Illinois, with M.S. and PhD degrees in chemical engineering. B. Moving up the Corporate latter in GE II. Leadership Style of Jack Welch A. Strategy Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Fix it, Sell it, or close itÃ¢â¬ Jack Welch fired more then 100,000 people (almost one in four). Neutron Jack devised the "vitality curve" where the bottom 10 per cent of employees were challenged to improve or leave. B. Took General Electric from $13 billion in 1981 to more than $300 billion when he left in 2001. Ran GE like a corner shop Ã¢â¬â keeping an eye on profits, cash flow, and people III. What is he doing now? A. After his retirement in 2001 served as corporate consultant to a group of Fortune 500 companies, all in different industries B. Wrote New York Times best seller Ã¢â¬Å"Straight from the GutÃ¢â¬ published in Sept. 2001 Has a new book coming out in 2005 entitled Ã¢â¬Å"WinningÃ¢â¬ a how-to book with Suzy Wetlaufer, former Harvard Business Review editor and Welch's fiancÃ ©e. Management Guru Jack Welch - Inspirational Visionary Jack Welch is one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s best known and most highly respected corporate CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s of all time. Vadim KotelnikovÃ¢â¬â¢s website Leadership and New Management Secrets discusses how Jack WelchÃ¢â¬â¢s vision to restructure General Electric to a Ã¢â¬Å"unique learning culture and boundaryless [sic] organizationÃ¢â¬ has help make GE one of the fastest capital growing companies. In the 1980's he was said to be Ã¢â¬Å"the biggest S.O.B.,Ã¢â¬ but today his management techniques are now credited with empowering the employee (Ã¢â¬Å"Jack Welch GurusÃ¢â¬ ). Management guru Jack Welch, former CEO of General Electric, has been instrumental ... ..., Ã¢â¬Å"A How-To Book for the Can-Do Boss,Ã¢â¬ Business Week, June 2002, 13 Dess, Gregory G., et al. Ã¢â¬Å"The New Corporate Architecture.Ã¢â¬ vol. 9, The Academy of Management Executive, August 1995, 7 Ã¢â¬Å"Jack Welch The Gurus Boiled Down.Ã¢â¬ The Times (London, England), September 2004, 9 Kotelnikov, Vadim. Leadership and New Management Secrets. 2004b. Ten3 Business e-coach. 24 November 2004. Rather, Dan, Ã¢â¬Å"GEÃ¢â¬â¢s Jack Welch Under Fire,Ã¢â¬ CBS Evening News Transcript, 1998, 2 Rosenstein, Bruce Ã¢â¬Å"How GE Chief Welch Rallies GEÃ¢â¬â¢s Troops,Ã¢â¬ USA Today, September 1998,15b. Tribune Business News. Ã¢â¬Å"In Boston, former GE chief Jack Welch works on new book with new wife.Ã¢â¬ The Boston Globe Oct 3, 2004, pITEM04277007 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?RQT=309&VInst=PROD&VName=PQD&VType=PQD&sid =2&index=5&SrchMode=1&Fmt=3&did=000000706042601&clientId=12441 Welch, John, Ã¢â¬Å"John Welch, Jr.,Ã¢â¬ Narrative Biographies, American Decades, CD- Rom, Gale Research, 1998, 302 Welch, Jack. Interview with Geoff Colvin. Maryland Public Television and Fortune Trademark of Time, INC. Sept. 13, 2002. 24 Nov 2004. . VBM, Ã¢â¬Å"Thought Leader: Jack Welch,Ã¢â¬ Value Based Management.Net 2004, Last update 21-11-04 Career Biography of Jack Welch Essay -- General Electric Business Mana Career Biography of Jack Welch Management guru Jack Welch, former CEO of General Electric, has been instrumental in forming todayÃ¢â¬â¢s top business management leaders by imparting effective knowledge in leadership management; he is widely credited with transforming GE into a multibillion-dollar conglomerate. I. Jack Welch Ã¢â¬â Who is the man? A. Biography Ã¢â¬â 1.Born in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1935. a. Growing up Ã¢â¬â The family lived in one of the poorer neighborhoods of Salem, Massachusetts. Welch has said that his mother was the most important influence on him, cheering him on in sports and academics, and always encouraging him to strive for more b. Schooling Ã¢â¬â Welch continued to pursue his education at the University of Illinois, with M.S. and PhD degrees in chemical engineering. B. Moving up the Corporate latter in GE II. Leadership Style of Jack Welch A. Strategy Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Fix it, Sell it, or close itÃ¢â¬ Jack Welch fired more then 100,000 people (almost one in four). Neutron Jack devised the "vitality curve" where the bottom 10 per cent of employees were challenged to improve or leave. B. Took General Electric from $13 billion in 1981 to more than $300 billion when he left in 2001. Ran GE like a corner shop Ã¢â¬â keeping an eye on profits, cash flow, and people III. What is he doing now? A. After his retirement in 2001 served as corporate consultant to a group of Fortune 500 companies, all in different industries B. Wrote New York Times best seller Ã¢â¬Å"Straight from the GutÃ¢â¬ published in Sept. 2001 Has a new book coming out in 2005 entitled Ã¢â¬Å"WinningÃ¢â¬ a how-to book with Suzy Wetlaufer, former Harvard Business Review editor and Welch's fiancÃ ©e. Management Guru Jack Welch - Inspirational Visionary Jack Welch is one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s best known and most highly respected corporate CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s of all time. Vadim KotelnikovÃ¢â¬â¢s website Leadership and New Management Secrets discusses how Jack WelchÃ¢â¬â¢s vision to restructure General Electric to a Ã¢â¬Å"unique learning culture and boundaryless [sic] organizationÃ¢â¬ has help make GE one of the fastest capital growing companies. In the 1980's he was said to be Ã¢â¬Å"the biggest S.O.B.,Ã¢â¬ but today his management techniques are now credited with empowering the employee (Ã¢â¬Å"Jack Welch GurusÃ¢â¬ ). Management guru Jack Welch, former CEO of General Electric, has been instrumental ... ..., Ã¢â¬Å"A How-To Book for the Can-Do Boss,Ã¢â¬ Business Week, June 2002, 13 Dess, Gregory G., et al. Ã¢â¬Å"The New Corporate Architecture.Ã¢â¬ vol. 9, The Academy of Management Executive, August 1995, 7 Ã¢â¬Å"Jack Welch The Gurus Boiled Down.Ã¢â¬ The Times (London, England), September 2004, 9 Kotelnikov, Vadim. Leadership and New Management Secrets. 2004b. Ten3 Business e-coach. 24 November 2004. Rather, Dan, Ã¢â¬Å"GEÃ¢â¬â¢s Jack Welch Under Fire,Ã¢â¬ CBS Evening News Transcript, 1998, 2 Rosenstein, Bruce Ã¢â¬Å"How GE Chief Welch Rallies GEÃ¢â¬â¢s Troops,Ã¢â¬ USA Today, September 1998,15b. Tribune Business News. Ã¢â¬Å"In Boston, former GE chief Jack Welch works on new book with new wife.Ã¢â¬ The Boston Globe Oct 3, 2004, pITEM04277007 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?RQT=309&VInst=PROD&VName=PQD&VType=PQD&sid =2&index=5&SrchMode=1&Fmt=3&did=000000706042601&clientId=12441 Welch, John, Ã¢â¬Å"John Welch, Jr.,Ã¢â¬ Narrative Biographies, American Decades, CD- Rom, Gale Research, 1998, 302 Welch, Jack. Interview with Geoff Colvin. Maryland Public Television and Fortune Trademark of Time, INC. Sept. 13, 2002. 24 Nov 2004. . VBM, Ã¢â¬Å"Thought Leader: Jack Welch,Ã¢â¬ Value Based Management.Net 2004, Last update 21-11-04
Monday, August 19, 2019
As we walked among the flowers we began to tremble. He said to her what a wonderful world. Oh my she explained to her husband of fifteen thousand years. And from there on they became universally involved. After reading Mervyn PeakeÃ¢â¬â¢s short story Ã¢â¬Å"Same Time, Same Place,Ã¢â¬ it is apparent that the author intended to create a story based around fantasy. Customarily, fantasy is mistaken for stories that include abstract creatures and inconceivable story lines. Under these circumstances one would then conclude that PeakeÃ¢â¬â¢s short story may not in fact be categorized to such an extent. However, when the formal definition of fantasy is applied to this story it becomes evident that Peake does more than hint at a story based around make believe. Fantasy can be better understood as one of two types of non-realistic fiction, the other being science fiction. In this case fantasy resembles the psychological state of fantasy in that it provides the reader with an experience of liberation similar to that provided by a daydream. Fantasy typically contains 1) a magical world in which liberating events can plausibly take place and 2) main characters with whom the reader closely identifies and through whom he or she enters the magical world. Now, in order to relate this formal definition to PeakeÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, it is more applicable to break down the definition of fantasy and apply necessary parts from the short story. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Of the many characters mentioned in the story, only one proved identifiable. From the opening lines, the narrator and main character is the first character the reader is able to identify. The young man we first come across seems responsible for the curious and sympathetic feelings the reader obtains. The narrator proclaims that his life of twenty three years has been nothing more than a bore to him, and perhaps he is having trouble with his own personal identification among his family. His time spent at home has left him to deal with hatred that has accumulated from being around his parents and not knowing his role in the family. Specifically, he deals with a father who is constantly consumed with cigarette smoke and a moustache that drives him crazy. He hates his mother who wears Ã¢â¬Å"tasteless and fussyÃ¢â¬ clothes and he even hates Ã¢â¬Å"the way the heels of her shoes were worn away on their outside edges.Ã¢â¬ The way in which he describes his hatred p rovides more reasoning as to why the reader is apt to feeling sorrow and sympathy.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
In this day and age, society operates in constant threat of terrorism, war, and nuclear fallout; the rapid growth of international militaristic power contributes to the ever-present fear in the back of all of our minds. None of us can go through the day without hearing a newscaster or radio personality talking about the growing threat that Iran or Afghanistan or North Korea poses to the global community, but there is one State that we hear of. This threat works in a much vaster environment, and shrouds itself in cloaks of secrecy and deception Ã¢â¬â China. Although the Chinese tend to evade the mass media frenzy that constantly reports on foreign threats, their underrated affairs are nothing less than lethal. Perhaps the most disturbing aspect of the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic remains to be their nuclear incubation programs Ã¢â¬â a violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of the United Nations that they agreed to nearly twenty years ago. The Chinese deny any kind of nu clear programs they have attained domestically, and refuse to affiliate themselves with supposed partnering nations such as Iran. While the Chinese attempt to cover up any trace of their nuclear enhancement programs, the country has a long history of nuclear development. During his Great Leap Forward, Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong made attempts to attain nuclear arms and create a nuclear program for his people that would help them in the future (Terrill 14). China currently acquires 13 nuclear reactors, with 25 more in the works that will quickly be followed by more, all growing in sophistication and innovation; the country will probably become self-sufficient in nuclear design and construction in the years to come (WNA 1). The Chinese have contracts with severa... ...on in modern society. DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite sound like the country that agreed to stop the spread of nuclear technology and propaganda, does it? The Chinese struggle to keep a faÃ §ade of indifference and innocence when it comes to nuclear affairs, but the facts tell a different story. Over the past decades, China has accumulated millions of nuclear arms, enhanced its nuclear capabilities through the creation of scores of sophisticated nuclear facilities, and forged powerful and hazardous relations with increasingly volatile nations in the Middle East. The China of today is a far cry from the country (or illusion of a country) that promoted pacifistic, diplomatic means Ã¢â¬â their poorly hidden nuclear programs and their alliances with dangerous counterparts has clearly put them in violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act that they signed nearly half a century ago.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
1. Why do you think Starbucks has been so concerned with social responsibility in its overall corporate strategy? Starbucks is not only concerned with the success of the company but with the satisfaction of their employees and customers. They realize and show they know without the customers they would not have the business. They ensure farmers are able to make profits by paying more for the coffee; they put the customer first and put them before their profits. When they have employees that are not satisfied, they will not give the company 100% of their ability. They value their employees so they reward them to keep their morale up and keep them happy so they keep the customers happy. 2. What are the most admirable and significant investments that Starbucks is making in its people, products, stores and suppliers? Starbucks offers benefits to employees if they work at least 20 hours per week. This helps single mothers if they cannot afford insurance. They make charitable donations to help farmers and the surrounding communities in effort to help make a name for them. They try to make it more customer-friendly by combining items on their menus so customers can take advantage of being able to get their breakfast and coffee at one convenient place. 3. What do you believe are the most significant ethical criticisms of StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ leadership and business strategy? Starbucks are everywhere. I have personal issues with big box companies driving out the mom and pop shops. They make it a hard competition for entrepreneurs to try to make it in this economy. I feel they should support the smaller businesses more but realize they will worry about themselves first. 4. Is quality of life in Albuquerque better or worse because of Starbucks? I feel coffee is a very sought after luxury that almost everyone enjoys. I have walked by some Starbucks and have seen people on their laptops studying, visiting with people, and have seen some business people having meetings. I think it could bring a better quality of life to Albuquerque if it has not already. I personally have paid the Starbucks price for coffee and do very much enjoy having that sweet energizing treat every once in a while. Although the economy now does not allow much room for luxury maybe they will rethink their prices in the future to better fit the decreasing economy to keep the customers coming in.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Reid with each other to. Hat makes this relationship special is we bond together and we treat each other nicely and are not disrespectful to one another-well crystal is special to me is she doesn't brag about things and she doesn't cry over dumb things and she's kind to one another. Crystal and recognized the relationship is when we started talking to each other a lot. Let all started back in the day 2011,we were at a party and I was eating food like usual and than saw her sitting down and I talked to her than we started to talk for a few than we have been friends since than.My relationship with this person is great ,we still hang out with each other and eating food, watching movies like usual. How feel about the relationship now? Is good like said we chill,eat,movies than more eating. What this relationship means to me is were just normal people , eating food with my best friend and its great Ã¢â¬Ënice to each other. I learned thru this relationship is were not always goanna be wi th each other even thou we live 1 house down and not to be disrespectful. This experience will help me with other people is don't judge a book by its cover like just be nice to one another.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Before science, psychology was untested. People assumed all psychological problems were caused by evil spirits. The roots of psychology go back to the ancient Greeks, the term itself comes from two Greek words, Ã¢â¬Å"psycheÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"logosÃ¢â¬ which means the soul and the study of a subject. Philosophy and physiology both contributed to psychologyÃ¢â¬â¢s emergence as a scientific discipline. The formal beginning of psychology started in the mid 18th century when a German physiologist named Wilhelm Wundt treated psychology as an independent science discipline. His book Ã¢â¬Å"Principles of Physiological PsychologyÃ¢â¬ was published in 1874, it focused on consciousness, including feelings, emotions and ideas. His perspective came to be known as Ã¢â¬Å"structuralismÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how they are related. Wundt and others also used a procedure called Ã¢â¬Å"introspectionÃ¢â¬ - a self- examination of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s conscious thoughts and feelings. However, by 1895 structuralism was replaced by Ã¢â¬Å"functionalismÃ¢â¬ - it focused on the acts and functions of the mind and behavior rather than its structure. In 1924, John B Watson published Ã¢â¬Å"Psychology as BehaviorÃ¢â¬ launched Ã¢â¬Å"behaviorismÃ¢â¬ which proposed that psychology should study only observable behavior. Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, whose work and theories helped shape the views of childhood, personality, memory, sexuality and therapy which attempted to explain motivation and mental disorders. Another change of psychology happened when Ã¢â¬Å"humanismÃ¢â¬ rose; its theoretical perspective emphasized conscious experiences. One of the founders of this theory, Carl Rogers strongly believed in the power of free will and humanÃ¢â¬â¢s potential to grow. Psychology continued to grow, more new ideas and perspectives were introduced. Psychology evolved out from philosophy and physiology to a separate and independent field of study with further development and theories to explain human thought and behavior throughout centuries. Today, psychologists focus on a particular specialty or perspective but their ideas and theories will continue to shape psychology for years to come.
Imagine living in a world with no mom and dad, and that at any of your sides you see many copies of yourself, and the only society you know is the one made up of some sort of hierarchy where you are not allowed to have any feelings or even think. This is the world depicted in the book Brave New World by Aldous Huxley. The book was published in 1932, he was looking to provide people a picture of a future perfectionist society full of science and Ã¢â¬Å"happinessÃ¢â¬ , but this vision somehow became the world we live in now. In the novel Brave New World, Huxley gives us a view of a society that can only achieve stability through fictional happiness. This is an example of a Utopian society that attempted to create a perfect society. At that time, changes in science were becoming frequent and Huxley noticed these changes. With the invention of the assembly line, the Ford Company allowed people to afford cars. Huxley was able to see where these advances in science were leading. When a person thinks of a utopia he or she thinks of a place where everyone is happy, with no diseases, where anger and sadness do not exist. As the motto of this world says Ã¢â¬Å"Community, Identity, Stability. Ã¢â¬ These three words hang in a sign over the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre, this creates and conditions new human life. These words are the slogan for this society. Ã¢â¬Å"CommunityÃ¢â¬ means that all persons must work together to maximize the greatest happiness for society as a whole, and it occurs through the artificially implanted ideas of Ã¢â¬Å"IdentityÃ¢â¬ that each person has. Regardless of the hierarchy they have, each person is supposed to be happy with their own identity. And Ã¢â¬Å"StabilityÃ¢â¬ is the ultimate goal of society because only through stability can happiness be maintained and all unpleasant feelings and emotions be eradicated. We are living in a Brave New World society in the present days. In the novel, people were being cloned and their lives had been already planned even before their birth with the use of psychological technologies to control the future behavior. Conditioning, combined with prenatal treatment, created individuals without individuality: each one was programmed to behave the way the government wanted. The citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s mind was being manipulated basically through the use of drugs and propaganda. Ã¢â¬Å"The principle of sleep-teaching or hypnopaedia, had been discovered. Ã¢â¬ He critiques modern government institutions whose power and ideals has slowly inserted into the minds of ordinary people. They teaching the children with some kind of propaganda while they were sleeping, the will play a message that they wanted all those children to know for the rest of their lives. The book was written years ago, really far from our time, but the scary truth is that we are living in the same standards as the world idea of Huxley. Together with the media, our government manipulates us to do what they want. For example, those TV commercials of cell phones that tells us to buy smart phones because they are better and then year after year they come up with improvements that are not real and we buy them because we think they are going to be better but we are just being stupid consumers giving money to those big companies. The government approves this because by consumerism, we generate the need of more therefore, more production, more jobs and will better the economy. This utopian society, had also its benefits. Their liberalism respecting relationship and sex, was not as bad because they had no compromises. the government taught them not to have serious relationships with other people. There were no family values, they encouraged to freely have sex with any person they wanted because sex would make them happy. We can see this, when Lenina tells Fanny that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s been sleeping with the same guy during four months and Fanny responds Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s such a horribly bad form to go on and on like this with one manÃ¢â¬ ¦ have somebody else from time to time, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all. Ã¢â¬ They do not condone exclusivity in a relationship, because that involved feelings of love and family and could lead to a disturbance on their social stability. We can totally mirror this in our present society. For example, few days ago a law gave underage girls the ability to purchase the morning after pill. This liberalism in sexuality is bad in the long run. This is allowing children to start their sexual life earlier, when thirteen year old kids are already having sex, there would be no exclusivity by the time they get married; there will be no family values within our society everything will be just about sex just as it was on the book. But were not responsible for those actions because this was all they knew. They manipulated them since babies so theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll grow up to be a part of their caste and to do what that caste was supposed to do and be happy with it, therefore be more productive in society. Even though, this world was depicted as perfect and everyone seemed to be happy with their lame controlled lives, there were people that were really affecter with the ideals. For example, alpha Bernard Marx, he was a quiet guy that like to use soma (their cocaine-like drug) seemed to be in love with Lenina, he wanted something more than sex from her, but she was know pretty much as a slut, because probably half of the men in the conditioning center had slept with her and he is disgusted to hear the men in the elevator talk about Lenina as though she were meat. People in our society would look upon Brave New World; we would see it as a place of immoral behavior and obscenity. This could this possibly be because they were conditioned to all that and cannot realize it. They could just as easily be conditioned into thinking that only their thoughts are correct. EveryoneÃ¢â¬â¢s goal in every culture is to reach a state of ultimate happiness. The society of Brave New World is just the same, but they go in different way by manipulation on actions, feelings and reproduction. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no need to sacrifice personal desires for the greater good. I think that what will make us really happy is the ability to freely make decisions about our own behavior and life, rather than relying on our society standards and what the government wants us to do. As an individual, I enjoy making my own decisions about what I want to be and about my sentimental relationship. I think anyone would want to strive to reach their full potential when they have the opportunity and freely reach their maximum happiness.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
ch 2 medical terminology- suffixes indicating diseases or abnormal conditions Term Definition Categories of Suffixes diseases or abnormal conditions surgical procedure diagnostic procedure general suffixes medical specialties or personnel converts word roots into adjectives algia pain asthenia weakness cele hernia, protrusion dynia pain cytosis abnormal cell condition ( too many) ectasis dilated, stretched out edema swelling emesis vomiting emia condition of the blood ia state, condition iasis abnormal condition ism state of, condition -itis inflammation lith stone lysis destruction lytic destruction -malacia abnormal softening -megaly enlargement, large oma tumor, mass -osis abnormal condition -pathy disease penia too few -phobia fear plegia paralysis -ptosis drooping -rrhage bursting forth -rrhagia bursting forth -rrhea discharge, flow -rrhexis rupture -sclerosis hardened condition -spasm involuntary muscle contraction -stasis stopping -stenosis narrowing -toxic poison -uria condition of the urine
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Supply Chain Integration - Case Study Example The power of IOIS also helped in creating an adversarial relationship between Wal-Mart and P&G. In this case, information technology helped in creating an accurate and timely information flow within the organizations. In simple terms, technology helped in establishing a common language especially during the partnership (Clark, and McKenny, 1995). Through technology, both organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ costs were driven down. Supply chain integration entails the flow of both products and information between organizational supply chain members. Recently, technology use is considered a requirement for any effective control in supply chain integration. In fact, development in technology enables organizational supply chain management to avail information easily. These technologies remain significant especially in coordinating the activities that help manage supply chain. Despite the acknowledged significance of IT use in supply chain integration, most studies assessing technology use in supply chain context remains limited (Coyle, Langley, Gibson, & Novack, 2012). According to the article, technology use especially in supply chain management is divided into at least three aspects. The three aspects include; Use of inter-organizational systems in supply chain integration remains important especially in information sharing. It also helps in processing across organizational boundaries. In organizations such as Wal-Mart, technology has played various roles in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s supply chain integration. Key roles in this case include driving out costs via automation, joint scorecards and measurements, and sharing information to better consumer understanding. It also helps in driving sales (Coyle, Langley, Gibson, & Novack, 2012). On the other hand, technology in supply chain integration helps in emphasizing strong commitment into developing mutually beneficial