Monday, January 27, 2020
How Will Singapore Effect Globalization Of National Identity Cultural Studies Essay Singapore, one of the most globalized nations in the world today, had undergone a series of political and economic crises in the past forcing its leaders to take on a proactive stance to the formation of national identity . One stance the government took was forging a national myth of progress that depicted Singapores transformation from a third world fishing village to a first world republic. The catalyze of this metamorphosis was globalization, through globalizing strategies such as: establishing English as the countrys first language; building Singapores economy through partnerships with multinational corporations; importing popular culture from over the world; advocating and sending Singaporeans to study abroad; encouraging the immigration of foreign talent; and stressing a global orientation rather than a local identity. The embracement of globalization through these strategies has led Singapore to acquire political stability and economic growth. However, they have weakened the countrys social bonds with are critical for pursuing the quest for national identity in Singapore. Although there are other aspects of Singapores national identity, this discussion will focus on the national identity of economic progress because it has a direct correlation with the Republics embrace of globalization. This paper will firstly study the terms globalization and national identity in the context of Singapore. After which, address five issues derived from Singapores embracement of globalization that has an ill effect on the republics national identity quest. Firstly, the way in which Singapore practices selective globalization that has led to an antagonistic relationship between local identities and global identities of the people. Secondly, the recognition of Singapore as a global nation state and how that loses national identity for future generations. Thirdly, how the influences of popular culture affects Singapores national identity adversely. Fourthly, how issues of emigration and immigration have undermined national identity. Fifthly, how Singapores declaration as a global city has led to the debilitation of Singapores national identity from which the problem of commitment arose. And sixthly, how Singapores success story, as a result of globalization, thwarts efforts of cementing the Republics national identity. Singapores National Identity Before we discuss Singapores national identity, this paper defines the concept of a nation, in relation to Singapore, as imagined and as a purposeful construct . This is because Singapore does not have a long history. Furthermore, it is populated by a myriad of different ethnicities. Since independence, the Singaporean government has tried to foster a national identity in Singapore. The aim of this was to unite the heterogeneous immigrant population under the nation-state; in the hope that a uniquely Singaporean identity, which the people could identify with, would emerge. The Singapore government has placed strong emphasis on creating a material-based national identity through the presence and availability of economic development, home-ownership, asset-enhancement, a high standard of living and modern facilities. This has created a social modernity that evokes a sense of Singapores national identity in practical and material terms . Hence, the cleanliness of the environment and the efficiency in the background of everyday Singaporean living are qualities the government promotes as Singapores national identity and national symbols. Singaporeans high quality of life as a resultant of globalization and commercial development reemphasizes the national identity of economic progress. Globalization in the context of Singapore Many scholars view globalization as a force, which would bring about the decline , erosion or the end of the nation-state. True to this definition, Singapores embrace for globalization has created problems by weakening emotional ties and the national identity of the nation. This is demonstrated by: a crippling of social cohesion within the community; a pragmatic attitude of Singaporeans; and an increase number of talented Singaporeans choosing to emigrate. Although the Singapore government attempts to connect the people under the notion of a national identity that is based on the myth of overcoming adversity, this paper posits that the process of globalization undermines Singapores territorial boundaries, the nations sovereignty, and its traditional roles, hence undermining the Republics national identity quest. Singapores practice of selective globalization Globalization exposes nation-states to both opportunities and challenges. Singapore has moved from the process of building a nation-state to becoming a global city. The government practices selective globalization where certain forms are encouraged and others are discouraged . While, they champion for the synchronization of regulations and policies with international standards, they protect their society from unwholesome global commodities such as pornographic magazines. On one hand, Singapore enjoys its status as one of the most globalized countries in the world in terms of finance and telecommunications. On the other hand, Singapore regularly gets criticized from international human rights institutions for insisting to practice its own label of politics . The issue of Singapore practicing selective globalization portrays the need to remain globally connected for the sole purpose of survival, while the retention of certain traditional ideals expresses the necessity to protect specif ic interest. Long suggests, that the act of cultures globalizing and de-globalizing within localities at the same time is synchronized through local practices; and ideals generated symbols transmitted through the media, whether global or local, are at the forefront of forming a contemporary culture . This would mean that globalization weakens the building blocks of national identity because of the reinforcement of social relations through messages, images and symbols that would connect individuals to what Anderson referred to as imagined communities . To explain further, these imagined communities are created through the process of media-related visual cues. An influx of these cues from globalization and localization causes Singapores national identity to be continually contested and negotiated. Singapore as a globalizing nation state Minister Mentor Lee Kwan Yew once said: if more Singaporeans worked abroad and their children forgot their rootsThey dissolve and disappear and there is no SingaporeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ They become citizens of the world. What does that mean? Lost! . As Singapores leaders continue to drive Singapore to become a globalized entity, global influences, such as international education and marriage to foreigners, result in the diminishing of Singapores nation identity. The main issue here is the loss of Singapores future generations of globalized young citizens who were never exposed to the fear of regional hostility or global alienation . Ironically, these generations of Singaporeans have been exposed to the very setting created by the government Singapores global environment that have in turn caused them to diminish their sense of national identity. The influence of popular culture on youths in Singapore The lack of national identity of Singapores most globalized segment of the population, the socially and politically apathetic younger generation, is a pivotal political issue in Singapore. Singapore leaders have tried to combat the social and political consequence of embracing globalization by recounting Singapores difficult past to the future generations as an answer to Singapores shortfall . However, the attraction of globalization presents itself as a strong deterrence to the Republics vision for its citizens. This deterrence can be explained by Bergers proposition of an emerging global culture distinguished by individuation . The embracement of globalization and its exposure to the people has achieved Individuation, which in Singapores context suggests the ability of citizens to form a stronger sense of self or individuality over the nations collectiveness; hence a weakening of national identity. To add on to the peoples sense of individuation, constrains in freedom of criticism of the government have led to demonstration of social trends such as the appropriation of immigration and emigration, as well as a general apathy towards national issues. The latter is best expressed as an attitude of indifference toward defending the nation, as well as, an attitude of dispassion towards Singapores national identity. Globalization issues of emigration and immigration in Singapore To nurture their only resource, people, Singapore sends its people abroad for higher education and training, and to hone their human resources, Singapore induces foreign talent to immigrate to Singapore. Even though these strategies have been successful, in championing objectives of increasing Singapores human talent pool, they weaken the national identity of the nation. Most Singaporeans sent overseas find more opportunities abroad and do not return. By the same token, new immigrants have a greater attachment to their home countries and would leave Singapore eventually. It is clear that although globalization helps Singapore thrive successfully, it undermines a deep attachment to the nation, hence undermining national identity. Furthermore, talented Singaporeans also feel that they will have more professional opportunities if they left Singapore to become a foreign talent. In responds to this, the leaders of Singapore indicated that they are aware of the double-edge sword of globalization, and included that emigration of talented Singaporeans would cause the core of the nation to unravel . It is important to note that the matters raised above, within the quitter-stayer debate, do not entirely point to issues pertaining to loyalty. Rather it points to issues that have emerged from the establishment of a national identity in conjunction with the Republics efforts to embrace globalization Meritocracy. Meritocracy, Singapores national value, has aptly associated talent to success and reward. It was strategically propagated to put Singapore on the global economy map . Today, this very ideal that helped achieve Singapores global status also diminishes the Republics national identity by ingraining an opportunistic mindset into the people, hence indirectly telling Singapores talent to go where opportunities exist. Commitment issues in Singapore as a result of globalization Another repercussion to Singapores embracement of globalization has been a sabotaging of commitment to Singapores well being, where the future generations are unwilling to sacrifice for the nation. One letter in the Straits Times forum page read, What do we have in Singapore that are worth dying for? This paper suggests that Singapore only really offers economic gain. Unfortunately, that could be attained elsewhere, hence there is nothing that compels Singaporeans to stay here, let alone die for their country . Although Singapores myth of economic progress is seen by the nation as a firm foundation of its national identity, it is being undermined because of globalization. In relation to the point above, Anderson puts, the imaginings of a nation are limited to the extent of elastic boundaries . Economic progress is not something exclusive to Singapore and therefore its usage as a national identity by the state is undermined. Through globalization, people identity themselves with an international community, and hence marginalize Singapores national identity of economic progress. Studies have shown that while Singaporeans indicate that they experience a national identity through materiality and achievements of the nation, this form of identity does not conjure up a feeling of allegiance. Neither does it evoke a passion that people may fight and die for, nor does it arouse a sense of differentiation between other cultures. Singapores success story as a national identity Very similarly to the point above, Singapores success story of economic progress, which led the Republic to achieving a worldwide identity, could diminish Singapores national identity. In what this paper views as the Singapore paradox, the goals of the state, which is to sustain the nation, could be threatened by the successful integration of its people into a de-nationalizing globalized identity. This is because globalization propagates factors like transnational migration that undermines the national identity of the Singapore. Conclusion This discussion of globalizations effects on Singapores national identity raises several conclusions that are relevant not only to Singaporeans but to other nations undergoing processes of globalization. Singapores government has embraced globalization as a vital means of not only economic growth but also the Republics survival. This paper has portrayed how the embracement of globalization exerts pressure on Singapores difficulty to construct an effective connection between the nation and its citizens through a quest for national identity. The very tactics of globalization that have led to the rise of Singapores economy have compromised the nations shared identity and opportunities; and as a result of the rise of Singapores affluence through globalization, it is difficult to minimize the negative factors of globalization and maximize the positive factors of localization in establishing a national identity.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Many people in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s work world are always looking to become better organized and better people. In the book, The One Minute Manager by Ken Blanchard & Spencer Johnson, the main character does just that. He was looking for the best managers out there. He ran into Ã¢â¬Å"tough managersÃ¢â¬ , whose organizations won while their people lost. He also ran into Ã¢â¬Å"nice managersÃ¢â¬ , whose people won but their organizations lost. Until, one day he ran into a One Minute Manager and was intrigued to learn more because this One Minute ManagersÃ¢â¬â¢ organization & people won. So the One Minute Manager Organized for the main character to speak to three of his employees so he could further his research. The first person he spoke to was Mr. Trenell, who told him about One Minute Goal Setting. Mr. Trenell explained first how One Minute Goal Setting is for your manager and you to be able to agree on the goals and show what is acceptable. Second, write all your goals on paper with less than 250 words. With doing all these correctly you and your manager should be able to read and re-read all goals in a minute and see whether or not your behavior matches your goals. Intrigued by all this the main character wanted to learn more. The second employee he went to speak to was Mr. Levy, who told him about One Minute Praising. He learned that with exercising One Minute Praising correctly he must first tell people up front that their performance will be watched and praised immediately. Secondly, tell people what was done right and how it makes you feel. After all that give them a moment to make everything sink in. After the moment, encourage more of the same behavior and shake hands to show your support. Even more intrigued than before the main character continued. The third employee he spoke to was Ms. Brown, who informed him about a One Minute Reprimand. A One Minute Reprimand, he learned, was pretty much like a One Minute Praising but in reverse. You still let people know that their performance is being watched and you reprimand immediately. This time instead of you telling them something right you tell them something wrong and your feelings towards that behavior. Give them a moment and then continue to reaffirm sides, value, and good behavior. The most important thing he learned about reprimands is that once itÃ¢â¬â¢s over, itÃ¢â¬â¢s over. Completely intrigued by this One Minute Managers employeesÃ¢â¬â¢, he wanted to know why it worked so he re-visited the One Minute Manager. The Manager explained that since the steps: One Minute Goal Setting, One Minute Praising, and One Minute Reprimand, were so easy to obtain anyone can easily do it. Finally, after learning all the proper steps to become a One Minute Manager he decides to try it for his own work. He up front lets his people know he is trying something new so he could practice without much criticism. He eventually masters the technique and becomes a One Minute Manager.
Friday, January 10, 2020
The government often uses contracts to acquire needed products or services. Every government purchase uses public funds. Contracting officials are tasked with ensuring that government purchases use public funds responsibly. When awarding contracts, contracting officials must be sure to use the best method possible to acquire goods and service at the best price possible. Two ways in which contracting officials do this is by using sealed bids and competitive proposals. Each form of awarding contracts has its own specific benefits and pitfalls while sharing some characteristics with the other. Sealed bids are a form of awarding contracts that uses competitive bids and public opening of the sealed bids which leads to the final award of the contract. In order to award a contract through sealed bids, a few things must occur. First a solicitation for bids must be drafted. The solicitation must include the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements in a detailed enough fashion to avoid misunderstandings from potential bidders. Sealed bidding and competitive proposals are both approved methods for awarding contracts according to federal regulation. When deciding whether or not to use sealed bidding, contracting officers should consider the time that will be required for bids to be solicited, submitted, and evaluated. The evaluation process for sealed bids may be lengthy especially if bidders are not prescreened to reduce the pool to only qualified firms. When all bids are received from qualified firms, sealed bidding can make an award decision quite simple. The lowest bidder is awarded the contract.. Unfortunately, sealed bidding depends on competitive pricing. Competitive pricing cannot be insured unless more than one bid is received. Competitive proposals are best used when a contracting officer determines that the nature of the contract makes it difficult to establish exact specifications or methods of performance. Often, the means of contract performance cannot be easily defined and the offerorÃ¢â¬â¢s proposal may need to include an explanation of how the contract will be performed. Unlike sealed bid contracts, competitive bids do not have to be awarded to the firm with the lowest price. Other considerations may be considered to determine the best firm. This determination may be made based on a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s performance of previous contracts, the proposed method of performance for the existing contract, or a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s specific capabilities in relation to other firms. While sealed bidding results in a fixed price or one with economic adjustments, competitive proposals allow for various kinds of contract types. http://www. governmentbids. com/cgi/en/bidding. advice. articles/Article/federal-contract-opportunities-for-your-business
Thursday, January 2, 2020
Literature Review The paper relates to three sets of literature: the capital structure, the location effect, and the peer effect. In the classical capital structure context, Fischer, Heinkel, and Zech-ner (1989) and Leland (1994; 1998), Hovakimian, Opler, and Titman (2001) show that firms periodically readjusts capital structures toward a target ratio. Lemmon, Roberts, Zender (2008) show that the majority of changes in leverage ratio are caused Ã¢â¬Å"by an unobserved time-invariant effect that generates surprisingly stable capital structures.Ã¢â¬ Lemmon et al. (2008) show that this factor is present before the IPO. They conclude, Ã¢â¬Å"variation in capital structures is primarily determined by factors that remain stable for long periods of time.Ã¢â¬ Recently, there has been a growing interest in studying the effect of geography on firm characteristics and financial decisions. Studies have shown that firm location affects its financing and strategic decisions. In this paper, focusing on U.S. firms, I show that headquarter location has a significant effect on capital structure. Several studies show that geographical factor has a significant effect on equity investing. Coval and Moskowitz (1999), and Grinblatt and Keloharju (2001) show that investors favor equity investments in local firms. Coval and Moskowitz (2001) Ã¢â¬Å"apply a geographic lens to mutual fund performance,Ã¢â¬ and find that mutual funds gain abnormal returns by investing in nearby firms. They also find that while the averageShow MoreRelatedThe Effect Of Geography On Firm s Characteristics And Financial Decisions1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesliterature: the capital structure, the location effect, and the peer effects literature. In the classical capital structure context, Fischer, Heinkel, and Zech-ner (1989) and Leland (1994), (1998), Hovakimian, Opler, and Titman (2001) show that firms periodically readjusts their capital structures toward a target ratio. 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