Wednesday, December 25, 2019
IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always been very interested in computers, from the way that they function, to how reliant we are on them in the modern day. So when it came to narrowing down a list of potential topics for my senior project, building a computer was one of the top choices I had. Eventually I did choose to that. This included buying all of the separate parts and assembling it together. After that, I knew that I would have to install an operating system on it, most likely Microsoft Windows, for it to be functional to the common person. Most people do not know how to navigate through a computer without a GUI, also known as a graphical user interface. I felt that it would be a great learning experience to build my own computer system, and did prove to beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I spent a lot of time unpacking all of the components and preparing them for assembly. All of parts that I received besides the case came in anti-static wrapping, in order to reduce the chance of frying the parts due to electrical discharge while traveling. After that was done, I decided to start preparing the case. I removed the film on the plexi-glass windows that prevented them getting scratched during assembly. Next, I installed the optional fan on the side door that would blow air onto the motherboard and graphics card, to keep everything extra cool. There were two front 120mm fans, one rear 120mm fan, and one 200mm fan that were preinstalled on the top. I decided in order to get maximum cooling efficiency, I would install the front two fans pointing inwards and sucking in air into the case. These are called intake fans. They bring the cold outside air into the case. Also, the side fan would be pointing in. The rear fan was to be put pointing outside the case. The 200mm preinstalled fan was facing outwards as well. These fans would expel the hot air from inside outside. This should provide a nice circulation inside. Once that was done, it was simply just a matter of putting the rest of the parts in the case and securing them. I had a guide off of the internet that went through step by step telling you what to do, but each computer is a little bit different so there were a couple parts that were different and I had to modify what it said toShow MoreRelatedBuilding A Computer And The Computer1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBuilding a computer When people hear that some people build their own computer, they automatically decide that it must be some very challenging task that requires a wizard of all things electronic. I will demonstrate otherwise, by starting with what parts to purchase for a good computer tailored to what is being planned on being done with it. Be it playing games, video-editing, or just simple internet browsing. Moving onward to an almost as essential step as putting it together: what tools are goingRead MoreBuilding a Computer2328 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesWith increasing popularity of computer games, and multimedia home PC users often need an unexpensive computer system upgrade. By building a custom computer one is able to combine componenets, and operating system to provide maximal gaming performance. Computers are often called number manipulators, because of their ability to run millions of mathematical operations per second (White 43). Computers use binary system of numbers, which allows them to operat e system of microscopic switches called transistorsRead MoreBuilding A Computer Essay1036 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmoney by building your own computer rather than buying it from a retail store. Today you will be learning how to build your own pc step by step. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot of steps when it comes to building a computer. From getting the case of the computer to all the hardware. First of all you will need to know what kind of computer you will be wanting to build for example, if you want to build a home office for word processing, you will have much different requirements than if you were to be building a high-endRead MoreBuilding a Gaming Computer1125 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Building a gaming computer may be an intimidating endeavour, but in all actuality with a little hard work anyone can be a whiz at putting together a gaming computer. Why build a custom gaming PC? Well itÃ¢â¬â¢ll save money, and give the builder a great experience. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s always fun to learn how different things work. The price of a top of the line retail gaming computer runs from two thousand on up to five thousand dollars and beyond, a monitor alone could cost one thousand dollars. The two types of gamingRead MoreInformative Speech : Building A Computer1504 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Building a Computer Specific Purpose: To inform my audience how to assemble a computer. Central Idea: The steps involved in assembling a computer are, preparing for assembly, building the platform, installing the motherboard and power supply, and finally installing cables, cards, and drives. Introduction I. Computer s are an integral part of our daily lives. Just about anywhere you go, a computer is present. Hospitals, banks, even the gas pump you frequent, relies on computer s to figureRead MoreBuilding Your Own Computer1705 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespurpose of my research project, I wanted to build a computer suited to my needs. Due to lack of funds I was unable to purchase the parts I wanted. To work around this obstacle I took apart my own computer and rebuilt it to learn the process of building a computer. Throughout this research outcome I will explore the processes I used and will discuss important matters to consider. I will also reference information that will help you build your own computer. The Australian Bureau of Statistics states thatRead MoreBuilding A Computer From Scratch Essay2186 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Building a computer from scratch is not a very complex task as some people may make it out to be, in fact, itÃ¢â¬â¢s easier now more than ever. Through the years since the computer was first introduced, the components inside the machine have become modular, and much more powerful. With the changes in computer designs, almost anyone today can build a computer in a relatively short amount of time, with some help along the way. Before one can dive into the actual computer build process, the builder mustRead MoreBuilding A Computer System For A Home User1784 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages When building a computer system you will need to look at and obtain all the components that are needed, you will also need to look at what you will need the computer system for. For this example I am going to show how to build a computer system for a home user who will mainly use the computer for internet browsing and social media. Components Needed Intel Core i7 Micro Processor The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the part of a computer system that is commonly referred to as the brains ofRead MoreBuilding A Computer That Can Handle Any Game1266 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesComputers consist of many different parts that, in order to perform a specific task, have to work in unison. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s becoming more and more popular to build a PC rather than buying a pre-assembled one because many companies just rip people off. My fascination with building computers peaked when I tried to play a game called Minecraft, but instead of the game loading up as it did on my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s computer, on mine it kept crashing. Minecraft is a game where players are all united in one world where theyRead MoreComputer Cardio Equipment : Building Health Club1773 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesproviding the requirements firstly with the business value, and then having the real-time information to control time, scope and cost. Agile Project Management reduces intricacy by breaking down the many-months-long cycle of building requisites for the entire project, building the product and then testing to find hundreds of product imperfections. Instead diminutive, utilizable segments of the software product are designated, developed and tested in manageable from a 2-4 week cycle. An example with
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
Dazed and Confused is a film that follows a plethora of characters on the last day of school before summer vacation. Although lacking in tangible plot, it makes a bold attempt to encompass and present the zeitgeist of the 1970s. In my opinion it is as if Dazed and Confused was produced in hopes of making those viewers who lived through the 1970s feel a sense of nostalgia. The filmÃ¢â¬â¢s trajectory, harnessing of zeitgeist, and soundtrack are all very similar to George LucasÃ¢â¬â¢s American GraffitiÃ¢â¬âa film that also successfully rooted in nostalgia. Dazed and Confused was released in 1993 and, like American Graffiti, was able to look over its shoulder to determine what music stood the test of time. The film attempts to epitomize what it meant forÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦We discussed in class how a movie made about eras past has twenty-twenty hindsight about what constitutes popular music, whereas if this film were made in the 1970s it might make some poor musical dec isions. Anytime the radio is playing or non-diegetic music is used it is a piece of music that is still popular today. It is possible for a movie to successfully guess what piece of music will transcend generations, as was the case in the movie Blackboard Jungle, but the music might have been used to create a much different effect. In Blackboard Jungle the rock music was used to associate the school with the danger, aimed at an audience of people who believed rock music was the sound of crime and degenerate youth. The film I mentioned before, American Graffiti, uses the exact same track as Blackboard Jungle but is instead aimed at the now grown up youth from the 1950s to create a sense of nostalgia. American Graffiti can, of course, do this with confidence because it was made long after the release of the song and the era. Dazed and Confused performs the exact same task with music from the 1970s. Frith writes, Ã¢â¬Å"One of the most obvious consequences of musicÃ¢â¬â¢s organization of our sense of time is that songs and tunes are often the key to our remembrance of things pastÃ¢â¬ (Frith 142). The people watching the film who have lived through this time period are able to associate themselves with these songs, becauseShow MoreRelatedDazed and Confused and American Graffiti1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Amer ican Graffiti and Dazed and Confused are both nostalgic, coming of age films that comically portray the characters interpersonal struggle and transition from their teenage, high-school years into adulthood. Both films are period pieces that take the audience back in time, to a time when life seemed much simpler than it is today. These types of films are almost always hits because of their relatability to the audience. The soundtracks featured in each of these films plays a significant roleRead MoreRankin: the Artist1608 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1992 when he and Hack co-founded British style mag Dazed Confused. Still considered to be at the forefront of popular culture, DC focuses on youth based trends within music, art, fashion, film and literature. Dazed Confused was always about creating our own magazine, and then giving others a platform, letting them work for us...We helped others. We loved ideas. We loved life. We were young and excited (Rankin in Cripps 2002). Dazed and Confused generated excitement not only amongst its editorsRead MoreThe Generation Of The World1602 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesweather or not they will make the purchase (Jaffray, 2015). 3 Part Two 3.1 Dazed Magazine Dazed and Confused Magazine, more often referred to as Ã¢â¬ËDazedÃ¢â¬â¢, was founded in 1991 in the United States of America. Dazed was initially a published magazine but has since grown into a network of different platforms, namely the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s website DazedDigital. Dazed reports on arts culture, fashion, photography as well as social issues. Ã¢â¬Å"Dazed exists to empower, entertain and educate tomorrow s cultural leadersRead More A Concussion is No Laughing Matter Essay627 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesit in cartoons all the time; one character gets bonked on the head and stars are suddenly floating in the air with the cartoon having a dazed look. However, only seconds later the cartoon is back up and back in action. This may seem funny on the latest saga of Tom and Jerry or Coyote and Roadrunner, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s not so funny in real life. Seeing stars, feeling dazed, and losing consciousness may be a type of brain injury called a concussion. A concussion, simply put, is a temp orary loss of normal brainRead MoreThe Is Cold, Dark And Dreary914 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe course of dutyÃ¢â¬ was all they would say. Everything else was Ã¢â¬Å"classifiedÃ¢â¬ . They handed me a letter from my brother, saluted, then turned and left, the click-clack of their shoes on the pavement slowly dying away. I stood frozen to the spot, dazed, confused and devastated. I finally opened the letter with trembling fingers but only one line stared back at me. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll always be with you brother. KarlÃ¢â¬ . What did he mean? How could he be with me ever again? He was dead. Now I leaned heavily on the rustyRead MoreWaking Life1145 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMost (i didnt really even know what to make of it. its the kid from that movie dazed and confused basically trying to find out the meaning of life and his identity and shit.. and hes like constantly in this dreamworld.. that he cannot seem to wake up of.. he cannot differentiate his dreams from reality. so one of the points is that there is no waking life...there is life and nothing else....each experience is an experience, nothing more or nothing less, each has the same value...the things youRead MoreHow Does Kyle s Work?777 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrequired extended time to complete certain tasks. Kyle also needed support with staying on task, this not only applied to his academics but also applied to his extracurricular activities, including football. During class, Kyle sometimes seemed to be dazed, confused, or spaced out. He needed to be frequently reminded to be on task. With regard to social performance, Kyle was awkward during communication. During communication, Kyle speaks slowly, lacks rhythm, and has a monotone pitch. Typically, Kyle doesRead MoreThe Perfect Day908 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Suddenly I awake at the noise of sirens and people yelling my name. Where am I? Those words radiate out my thoughts but never touching my lips. Panic engulfs me, but I am restricted to the stretcher. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you ok?Ã¢â¬ said the paramedic. I am dazed, confused, and barely aware of my surroundings. Again Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, I am fineÃ¢â¬ races from my thoughts down to my mouth, but nothing was heard. Then, there was darkness. I wake up in this room. My mother is to my left crying with her face in the palms of her handsRead MoreLife Alting Experience : A Life-Altering Experience782 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswhite truck. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to put into words the exact feeling of staring down a truck racing towards you at fifty miles per hour. The next thing I remember is waking up in the passenger seat of the mangled car with my Sally yelling my name. I was dazed and confused and was trying to figure out what had happened, and my Sally kept repeating to me that we had been hit by a truck and asking if I was okay. We had been hit on the passenger side right where I was sitting. The door was bent in and completelyRead MorePatients Health Of Medical Marijuana1733 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesantipsychotics, antidepressants, sedatives, hypnotics, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, anxiolytics, and memantine. Unfortunately, the efficacy of these interventions do not necessarily outweigh the risks that are associated with its u se. In the study Dazed and Confused: Medical Cannabis in Alzheimer Disease, the study states that Ã¢â¬Å"Pre-clinical studies show evidence suggesting neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids. The exact mechanism of action is not known, but could involve reduced excitotoxicity through
Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Hospitality and Tourism Service Management. Answer: Introduction The changes in the world are taking place in every sector at a very rapid pace. The hospitality and tourism industry needs to have good and competitive policies regarding rendering good customer service in order to survive in the competition. Customer service can be described as the overall activity of identification and satisfaction of the needs of the customers. As per Altinay, Paraskevas Jang, providing high-quality customer service is very much required in order to obtain customer satisfaction. The hospitality and tourism industry needs to identify the commitment to fulfil and satisfy the needs of the customers to make them feel important and respected (Altinay, Paraskevas Jang, 2015). It can be described that the service industry is the face of any industry or organization. Delivering a good quality service is vital for solving the issues and concerns of the customers. The level of customer satisfaction will be determined by the quality of service rendered to them. The most important aspect of the hospitality and tourism industry is the customer service and quality control. True Quality Service In order to ensure and maintained the quality that is expected by the present day customers there are generally tow aspects with specific design quality, attention, quality of conformity. It is a fact that the service rendered to the customers varies with various types of business. According to Bunakov, et al, the design quality is a concept that implies the presentation of the services that are directed towards the needs of the customers and the hotels and other tourism and hospitality sector can satisfy the demands of the customers (Bunakov, et al., 2015). The hospitality and tourism industry is a very wide industry. This industry includes the sectors such as logging, restaurants, theme parks, transportations, event management and other additional fields. As per Dredge, Airey Gross, the industry of tourism and hospitality accounts for huge part of the revenue across the globe that depends on the customer's disposal income in order to facilitate them in their leisure (Dredge, Airey Gross, 2014). As a whole, the hospitality and tourism industry can be categorized into segments such as Accommodation, adventure tourism, and recreation, conferences and events, food and beverage, attractions, travel and trade, tourism services, etc. The business of hospitality has outstretched the global scale that is operated by a different structure that would range from the multinational networks right from small hotelier businesses. According to Hall Gssling, the hospitality industry is very loosely associated with sectors such as human resource management, marketing, financial and operational management. Considering the diversified characteristics of the hospitality and tourism industry, the complete understanding of the global and intercultural management is the initial point where the entire customer service would begin (Hall Gssling, 2013). Customer service in the tourism and hospitality industry can be described as the series of activities that are designated to enhance the level of satisfaction of business which relates to the feeling that a service in the sector has fulfilled the expectations of the customers. Different Dimensions The nature of the customer services in various hospitality and tourism industry can be summarized in the following dimensions: Integrated: Tourists travel as they want to gain pleasure and enjoyment regarding new experiences and the feelings that are associated that are not basically present in their daily life. The industries related to the hospitality and tourism sectors provide the tourists with services that are integrated with the customer service such as pre-trip services like booking and inquiry, services rendered during the trip, i.e. food and beverage, entertainment, transport, sightseeing, accommodation, etc. Hence, the customer service in the hospitality and tourism is integrated. Direct: All the customers' services are rendered to the customers in a very timely, immediate and direct manner. For an instance, the tourist information centres or travel agencies provide the booking and inquiry services, hospitality staff provide beverage and food, accommodation services and the tour services are being provided by the tour guides. Hence, servicing the customers in a direct way is among the characteristics of the customer service. Emotional: As per J. Harrington, et al, customers have the emotional needs in addition to the practical requirements like food and beverage or shopping. These emotional needs include the needs for respect and recognition during their trips (J. Harrington, et al., 2014). Hence, the attitude and quality of the service provided by the staff in various departments of hospitality and tourism are crucial for the customers. The staffs dealing with the customer service has to pay extra care and attention to the satisfaction of the emotional requirements of the customers. Timely: The crucial aspect of analysing the satisfaction of the employees is effects of the employee and customer interaction when there is a business opportunity to upset or impress the customer. Improvising: The different customers have different needs in different sectors of hospitality and tourism sectors and look forward to the services that would provide them satisfaction. However, the perception of service satisfaction has variations with varying types of customers. It is important that the staff in the customer service department should be stay prepared all the time to satisfy the various needs of the various customers. Customer Service Customer service is considered as a competitive advantage in various sectors in the hospital and tourism industry as it is in many of the industries. The quality of the standardized service is originally analysed through the judgment of the performance of the staff. As per Law, Buhalis Cobanoglu, the main reason for the various organizations in the hospital and tourism industry to form the policies regarding the customer satisfaction is to reveal the value of the customers and provide satisfaction to the customers (Law, Buhalis Cobanoglu, 2014). The policies regarding the customer service are relatively similar to the Bundling process concept stated by Grimier and Kini. This concept deals with the provision of value added advantage around the service and satisfaction of the hotel renders. It is very natural for the customers to return back to the hotels where they have received a high quality and extra services at affordable prices. Some of the explanations reveal that the policies regarding customer service have significant roles in providing solutions and suggestions for different questions that are asked by the customers. ACSI Model of Customer Satisfaction: According to this model, customer expectations are the anticipations of the customers regarding the level of the quality they should be receiving from an organization. This model emphasizes that the expectations in the market represent both the prior consumption experience of the server market with the offering of the firm that includes the non-experimental information that is available through the various sources like word of mouth and advertising including a forecast of the ability of the supplier to deliver the quality in the future (Law, et al., 2015). The model postulated that the expectations of the customers have positive and direct implications on the overall satisfaction of the customer in an organization due to the prevailing relationship with the customer. It also has implications on the both the perceived value and perceived quality (Page, 2014). According to Lu Stepchenkova, perceived quality refers to the measure of the recent interaction regarding service provided to the customer by the company. The model further states that the quality of the service can be measured in terms of how the needs of the individuals are met by the service along with the error free reliability and delivery (Lu Stepchenkova, 2015). This is also said to have a positive and direct implication on the overall customer satisfaction. Perceived value is the measurement of quality of the service relative to the paid price, i.e. value for money. The model further denotes that price has more effect on the satisfaction of the customers from the first experience of purchase but comparatively a lesser impact on the satisfaction for the repeated purchases (Riley, 2014). The Service-Profit Chain Theory: Most of the organizations in the hospitality and tourism industry are adopting a strategy that is market oriented. However, there is a strong relationship between the customer satisfaction and profitability. As per Mok, Sparks Kadampully, a satisfied customer is who has experience of good quality service and would normally recommend the service of the hotels or other organizations to others, would repeat the purchase. He would even go for trying line extensions (Mok, Sparks Kadampully, 2013). This will result in a circular flow which would enhance the economic performance of the organization. However, various organizations from different sectors of the hospitality and tourism industry may perform poorly in spite of having good customer satisfaction as there are many other factors such as production, hidden cost, labour costs, the economic health of a country, etc., which are to be taken care of by the organizations (Nickson, 2013). Conclusions: The customer service is affected by various elements and varies for different sectors of hospitality and tourism industry. In the global hospitality and tourism industry, the most important input is regarded to the customers who seek satisfaction of specific requirements. The desired output for the organizations is satisfied customers. If the customers are satisfied, the organization receives repeated and frequent business. It is vital for any organization from the hospitality and tourism industry to ensure that their employees provide best and high-quality service to the customers. The grievances of the customers must be taken care by the organizations in a reasonable, positive and timely manner. The organizations from various sectors in the tourism and hospitality industry must meet the obligations which are subjected to various policies and procedure. References Altinay, L., Paraskevas, A., Jang, S. S. (2015).Planning research in hospitality and tourism. Routledge. Bunakov, O. A., Zaitseva, N. A., Larionova, A. A., Chudnovskiy, A. D., Zhukova, M. A., Zhukov, V. A. (2015). Research on the evolution of management concepts of sustainable tourism and hospitality development in the regions.Journal of Sustainable Development,8(6), 39. Dredge, D., Airey, D., Gross, M. J. (2014).The routledge handbook of tourism and hospitality education. Routledge. Hall, C. M., Gssling, S. (2013).Sustainable culinary systems: Local foods, innovation, and tourism hospitality. Routledge. Harrington, R., K. Chathoth, P., Ottenbacher, M., Altinay, L. (2014). Strategic management research in hospitality and tourism: past, present and future.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,26(5), 778-808. Law, R., Buhalis, D., Cobanoglu, C. (2014). Progress on information and communication technologies in hospitality and tourism.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,26(5), 727-750. Law, R., Leung, R., Lo, A., Leung, D., Fong, L. H. N. (2015). Distribution channel in hospitality and tourism: Revisiting disintermediation from the perspectives of hotels and travel agencies.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,27(3), 431-452. Lu, W., Stepchenkova, S. (2015). User-generated content as a research mode in tourism and hospitality applications: Topics, methods, and software.Journal of Hospitality Marketing Management,24(2), 119-154. Mok, C., Sparks, B., Kadampully, J. (2013).Service quality management in hospitality, tourism, and leisure. Routledge. Nickson, D. (2013).Human resource management for hospitality, tourism and events. Routledge. Page, S. J. (2014).Tourism management. Routledge. Riley, M. (2014).Human resource management in the hospitality and tourism industry. Routledge.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Analyzes the relationships between Clytaemnestra and her mother Electra and husband Agamemnon; Penelope and her husband Odysseus and son Telemachus. Agamemnon and Ulysses both fought in the Trojan war and then set out to return home. Agamemnon managed to go directly home, but Odysseus had offended Poseidon and was made to wander for many years before he was able to make his way home. Each man had a wife waiting for him, though these women show very different natures while at the same time reflecting the fact that they have very different husbands. Clytaemnestra has a lover and is plotting the death of her husband, but she has reason for doing so given that he killed one of her children. Penelope is dutifully waiting for her husband to return as she is surrounded by suitors who want Odysseuss kingdom. The two women have different reactions not only to their husbands but to their children, and each story shows a social complexity that helps shape the reactions of the women. We will write a custom essay sample on Oresteia ( Aeschylus ) and The Odyssey ( Homer ) or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Each woman possesses a role in
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Performance Management Ã¢â¬â HR Free Online Research Papers Performance Management Abstract The paper seeks to show that Effective Performance Management has become the core of Human Resources and is revitalizing, reenergizing and rejuvenating HR. The challenges faced by the present day organization are broadly discussed under the effectiveness of its performance management systems, which ultimately acts as a catalyst for employee engagements and their effective performance. This paper explores through its findings a new performance management system for improving overall organizational performance in general, through inventing new dimension for effective individual performances in specific. A framework is developed for the implementation of effective performance management in any organization. This paper is explicitly directed towards various parameters for energising human resources and serves interesting food for thought for the future managers dealing with performance management. Introduction Performance management, as pertaining to human resource management (HRM), is the process of delivering sustained success to organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ by improving capabilities of individuals and teams. It supports the philosophical principle that people and not capital provide organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ with a competitive advantage. However, performance management presents severe challenges in terms of practical implementation. Previous studies have largely failed to overcome many of the organizational constraints on its successful implementation. Overcoming barriers to change is especially important given their close relationship to the fulfilment of the psychological contract and related HRM systems (reward, development, etc.). The psychological contract construct consists of the existence of a Ã¢â¬Å"softÃ¢â¬ set of expectations held by the employee, which have to be organized and managed. Within the relationship defined by these constructs, the employer and the employee inform, negotia te, monitor and then re-negotiate (or exit) the employment relationship. Thus, if the employee feels that a performance management approach breaches or violates their psychological contract expectations this can lead to an irrevocable breakdown in the employment relationship. Careful implementation of performance tools is therefore crucial to their success as contributors to organizational development. Performance Management as a core of HR Performance appraisals, performance reviews, appraisal forms; whatever we want to call them, letÃ¢â¬â¢s call them gone. As a standalone, a performance appraisal is universally disliked, after all how many people in any organization want to hear that they were less than perfect last year or how many managers want to face the argument and diminish morale that can result from the performance appraisal process. If the true goal of the performance appraisal is employee development and organizational improvement, we consider moving to effective performance management system. There has been a paradigm shift in the focus of HR from the early days where craftspeople organized guilds using unity to improve working conditions. Companies in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s era focus on performance of employees which in turn helps the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. No doubt that effective performance management has become a core of HR. Performance management to support organizational change The ultimate competitive asset of any organization is its people, thus organizations should develop employee competencies in a manner aligned with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s business goals. This can be achieved through performance management systems, which act as both behavioural change tool and enabler of performance management system improved organizational performance through being instrumental in driving change. This can then be institutionalized through organizational policies, systems and structures. Performance management aims to emphasize and encourage desired and valued behaviours, thus is a key tool of communication and motivation within organizations seeking a competitive edge through strategic change and control. A visionary performance management then becomes a system for translating organizational intention and ambition into action and results, delivering a strategic goal, such as behavioural change. The system also brings focus to organisational change and development, particularly regarding competencies. When competency profiles support company goals, they become instrumental in developing the human resources necessary to deliver business goals. As a result, performance management system is an important tool for communicating priorities and for providing feedback to stimulate employees to meet the new expectations. Role and importance of effective performance management system Changing individual employee behaviour lies at the heart of organizational change programmes. This is because they ignore or violate established change psychology principles. Senior management can assume that because they are ready to pro-actively embrace change, their employees will be equally pro-active. However, imposing action on employees who are not prepared results in conflict. Typically, only 20 percent of employees in organizations are prepared to take positive action in response to change initiatives. More than 70 percent of new strategic initiatives fail for this reason.4 Thus, to be successful in shaping behaviour, performance management systems must achieve acceptance by those being Ã¢â¬Å"managedÃ¢â¬ . Modern organizations need to respond more effectively to changing external and internal environments, and organizational learning has become an important strategic focus. By anticipating and responding to changes in the environment through proactive learning interventions, some organizations are evolving into learning organizations. Nonetheless, the question of how to best transform behaviours through organizational learning and development remains. In reality, many change initiatives fail because either organizational culture is not ready to change at that time, or because they do not anticipate the impact of change on human systems. Initiatives in the latter category typically result in resistance and ultimately failure of the change initiative. As mentioned earlier, one method that organizations can use to affect employee competencies in a manner aligned with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s change is to develop robust performance management systems. Analysis of performance management in terms of key result area KRAÃ¢â¬â¢s refer to general areas of outcomes or outputs for which a role is responsible. The KRAÃ¢â¬â¢s should be clearly defined. Once, the KRAÃ¢â¬â¢s are defined the individual can chart a process to achieve the KRAÃ¢â¬â¢s. KRAÃ¢â¬â¢s are also known as Key Work OutputÃ¢â¬â¢s (KWOÃ¢â¬â¢s). An effective performance management system can facilitate change and innovation by both demonstrating their relationship with the overall strategy, and by supporting and monitoring the progress towards achieving the ultimate goal. It is therefore a crucially important tool for communicating priorities and for providing feedback on employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ contributions towards achieving organizational goals. The purpose of the performance management system is to ensure that the work performed by employees is in accordance with the established objectives of the company. Employees should have a clear understanding of the quality and quantity of work expected from them and simultaneously receives ongoing information about how effectively they are standing as to the standards/benchmarks. Opportunities for employee development are identified and employee performance that does not meet standards is appropriately addressed. Moreover an operative performance management system consists of a process for communicating employee performance expectations, maintaining performance management dialogues and conducting annual performance appraisals. It is a procedure for encouraging and facilitating employee development and resolving performance pay disputes. Performance management system serves a strategic purpose because they help link employee activities with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and goals. It serves as a basis for employment decisions to promote outstanding performers, to train, transfer or discipline others, and to award merit increases. Data regarding employee performance can serve as criteria in HR research. They can help establish objectives for training programs. Finally, performance management system allows organizations to keep proper records to document HR decisions and legal requirements. A research conducted on BSE listed companies revealed the four key result areas that are critical for any performance management system and how each of these areas which has a number of dimensions, can be measured by key performance indicators. The four key result areas are as follows: I. Developing external relationship: The PMS should consider the three key performance indicators while considering employee performance to achieve the KRA of developing external relationship: firstly, contractual agreements i.e. managing policy and procedures for agreements which are implemented and reviewed annually and handling major research contracts renewed with stakeholders. Secondly, to create new strategic alliances such as its success can be measured by reviewing annually the number of competitor or collaborator analysis undertaken and new collaborations established and developed and finally to develop lines of communication such as quarterly reviewing, the visits made by the shareholders and information about research and education activities provided to stakeholders in written and electronic format. Communicating this Idea to employees and evaluating their commitment levels through structured parameters will help in achieving organisational objective. II. Building organisational capabilities: Similarly, PMS has to also consider dimensions such as to attract and retain the right people i.e. to review annually so as to identify and resolve gaps in the performance of the leaders and provide and implement strategic, analysis based advice performance management system for all staffs. Secondly, the system fosters a value driven culture which includes code of conduct developed around share values, rewarding employees and implementing a recognition system to reinforce culture. Finally, it creates a supportive structure and systems which includes implementation of most effective organisational structure, reviewing annually the policies, systems and procedural documented. This KRA will finally contribute towards enhancing skill based performance for quality work. III. Taking a selective and focussed approach: The PMS should check the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s work focus which can be measured by reviewing annually the service level agreements and how these agreements are benefiting the key stakeholders. In the light of this KRA the employees are able to meet up to the expectations of their job description and accordingly see and evaluate their respective performances as a transparent system. IV. Maintaining quality research, service and education output: The last key area helps to ensure relevance to the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission by consistent work with strategic direction and available skills. Performance management can be measured through milestones achieved. Also, it measures work impact which can in turn be measured through new knowledge that is being published or presented, identification of changes to policies or practices and finally customer satisfaction which can be measured with the help of surveys conducted. This will contribute towards managing talent in the organisation and exploring opportunities for potential employees and also for succession planning. BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTING EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS7:- 1. Organizational Barriers Ã¢â¬â Variations in performance within systems may be due to common causes or special causes. Common causes are faults that are built into the system due to prior decisions, defects in materials, flaws in the design of the system, or some other managerial shortcoming. Special causes are those attributable to a particular event, a particular operator, or a subgroup within the system. 2. Political Barriers Ã¢â¬â Political considerations are organizational facts of life. Appraisals take place in an organisational environment that is anything but completely rational, straight-forward, or dispassionate. It appears that achieving accuracy in appraisal is less important to managers than motivating and rewarding their subordinates. Many managers will not allow excessively accurate ratings to cause problems for themselves. 3. Interpersonal Barriers Ã¢â¬â Interpersonal barriers also may hinder the performance management process. Because of a lack of communication, employees may think they are being judged according to one set of standards when their superiors actually use different ones. Furthermore, supervisors often delay or resist making face-to-face appraisals. Rather than confronting substandard performers with low ratings, negative feed-back, and below-average salary increases, supervisors often find it easier to Ã¢â¬Å"damn with faint praiseÃ¢â¬ by giving average or above-average salary ratings to inferior performers. Performance Managers Performance managers can improve on a performance measurement system, as objectively as possible, upon discussion with the line managers. They need to clearly define the role for each position in the organisation, and communicate the positions to the new entrants respectively. They may formulate a reward system that is in tune with industry standards, and companys retention and performance strategy, and take local and overseas opportunities as factors of consideration. As facilitators of training and development activities, they may identify their teamsÃ¢â¬â¢ individual training needs which may involve technological, behavioural or cross-cultural contents. As career counsellors, they may develop different career paths technical or managerial, and attempt to satisfy the needs of the employees. Ã¢â¬Å"The Indian IT industry has set an exceptionally high standard with regard to workplace and employee practices. With the continued growth and rapid evolution of the industry, as well as the changing aspirations of its young workforce, IT companies small or large will have to constantly look at innovation to excel as employers,Ã¢â¬ said Kiran Karnik, president, Nasscom, in a statement. Small and medium-sized IT and business outsourcing companies are constantly looking at adopting best practices such as innovative performance appraisal system, individual career development programmes and recreational activities, to make themselves more attractive to employees in a fiercely competitive market, says a survey on exciting emerging companies in India conducted by the National Association of Software and Services Companies (Nasscom). At the BPO company, which has seen its attrition rate coming down to 8% from 28% last year, employees are encouraged to post their feedback anonymously, which is taken up by teams that can address it the best. By creatively designing the total reward package towards more short-term incentives and benefits, and linking the package to performance, companies can ensure that they get higher productivity without hefty increases in salary costs and minimise attrition costs at the same time. The general parameters for the measurement of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance in BPOÃ¢â¬â¢s are: Speed i.e. process performance, Accuracy and Productivity of each process, Although the measuring parameters are different for employees at different level, but the general classification of the above mentioned parameters for Ã¢â¬Å"Customer care ExecutivesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Team leadersÃ¢â¬ are as follows: Average Call Value (the sales made or the revenue collected etc.) Time and cost per call Average Handling Time (talk time and after call wrap up) Adherence to Schedule (availability to take calls etc.) Percentage of abandoned calls Discipline Attendance According to a recent survey Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"The Pay for Performance can be as much as 22% of the salary.Ã¢â¬ Thus, good performance is highly rated in the IT and BPO industry. Recommendations for effective performance management:- 1) Senior management should show commitment Ã¢â¬â The process of performance management within the company lacks participation and benefits none without active senior management support and leadership. 2) Employee resistance should be kept minimal Ã¢â¬â PMS is made for aligning the goals of employee and the organization, thus, effective performance management system is only going to be effective when employees understand the importance of performance management system in their own careers. 3) Training infrastructure and capacity building programs Ã¢â¬â Surprisingly, given the level of resources provided for the rollout of the new performance management system, employees at every level of the organization appear to lack the necessary knowledge and skills required for their particular contribution to the system. 4) Benchmarking Ã¢â¬â Effective performance management can only be sustained when the performances are compared with the standards set in the organization and as this is done on a continuous basis, this leads to improvement of performance and brings it closer to the benchmark set by the organization. 5) 3rd axis measurement Ã¢â¬â If performance is to be measured on a two axis system, organizational goals and employee performance for these goals respectively, then a 3rd axis also needs to be measured which is employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s personal goals, because then only performance can be measured in true terms. Conclusion: We conclude the research by stressing effective performance management is a key tool of communication and motivation within organizations seeking a competitive edge through strategic change and control. The framework for performance management system design has its core element as improving individual performance in accordance with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, keeping in mind employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s personal goals. Overcoming barriers to change through winning the psychological battle of employee involvement by effective performance and evaluating parameters has become the need of the hour. The KRAÃ¢â¬â¢s that determine the effectiveness of a PMS are, Developing external relationship Communicating this Idea to employees and evaluating their commitment levels through structured parameters will help in achieving organisational objective. Building organisational capabilities This KRA contributes in enhancing skill based performance for quality work. Taking a selective and focussed approach and maintaining quality research Ã¢â¬â This KRA provides a transparent system for evaluation of employee performance in terms of job description. Service and education output Ã¢â¬â This KRA contributes in managing talent in the organization. The afore said KRAs as discussed in full length are only suggestive in nature .The final implementation may be based on some primary research over the aforesaid parameters so that its contribution may ultimately result into epitomizing performance for establishing a cognitive environment. References:- 1. think.exist.com 2. Mei-I Cheng De Montfort University, Implementing a new performance management system within a project-based organization -A case study. 3. about.com/humanresources. 4. trackers.in 6. Wayne F. Cascio and Herman Aguinis, Applied Psychology in Human Resources Management Ã¢â¬â sixth edition/ (CH-5) P-85 7. ibm.com/services/strategy/industries/chemicals. 8. pwc.com/ng/PwC Nigeria Ã¢â¬â HRS brochure. Research Papers on Performance Management - HRThe Project Managment Office SystemOpen Architechture a white paperIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaDefinition of Export QuotasPETSTEL analysis of IndiaStandardized TestingComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever Product
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Decimal Degrees Versus Minutes, Seconds When you hear about metric measurements, usually you are bombarded with terms denoting length, height or volume, depending on your industry. Outside of formal schooling, you almost never hear about the geographical side of measurement - specifically, those ever-present invisible lines of latitude and longitude. This article will explore how some metrics are shown in geographical terms, who uses traditional Degrees/Minutes/Seconds, and what the future may hold.Ã A Brief History of U.S. Metrics Originating in France in the 1790s, the metric system (officially known as SI, short for Le Systeme International dUnites) grew in popularity due to increasing global commerce. Through trade with Europe, the U.S. awareness of metrics trickled into existence, eventually prompting Congress to permit its use in 1866. It was legal but voluntary. The first official legislation concerning metric conversion was passed by Congress in 1974, adding metrics to our elementary and secondary education curriculum. One year later (in 1975), Congress passed the Metric Conversion Act, declaring that the U.S. federal government should use metrics as its preferred measurement system, as evidenced by a box sitting in my cubicle whose labeling instructions tell of letters that must be 3.81cm (1.5 inches) high. The nutritional information on any package of food is also a good example, showing grams (instead of ounces) of fat, carbs, vitamins, etc. Ever since its beginnings, the U.S. government has striven to promote and stabilize metrication, with limited results: mostly those in the sciences, military, engineering, manufacturing and other technical fields use the metric system. The general public, however, continues to show comparatively overwhelming disinterest in adopting grams, litres, and meters over the traditional ounces, quarts, and feet. The United States is the only remaining industrialized country whose general population does not use metrics as its primary measurement system. Metrics and Geography Despite the average American laypersons apathy for metrics, those of us who use geographic coordinates on a daily basis see plenty of evidence that decimals are out in full force. On any given day Ill see a few handfuls of engineering site surveys (and sometimes other data) come across my desk, 98% of which have a decimal somewhere in the latitude or longitude. As technology has developed over the years, allowing more accurate measurements, the number of ways that we geography people get to read those coordinates has increased. The three most popular types of Lat/Lon displays are: Traditional degrees/minutes/seconds (D/M/S), usually with decimal secondsDegrees with decimal minutes, no secondsDecimal degrees, no minutes, no seconds Doing the Math No matter how you choose to display them, any converted coordinates will get you to the same point, basically - its simply a matter of preference. If you are one of those people who grew up learning only D/M/S like me, you might break into a cold sweat the first time you see the second or third decimal variations (bulleted above), if only from the memory of your high school algebra classes. But fear not, for there are a boatload of conversion programs and websites that will do the math for you. A majority of these sites convert between D/M/S and decimal degrees, leaving out the less popular but still available decimal minutes. There are other sites for those who dont mind/enjoy algebra, or who are naturally intrepid souls and simply wish to brave the longhand algebraic equations. If you are ready to break out the Texas Instruments calculator and go for it, you might try the Montana Natural Resource Information System, which shows conversion equation examples, but also has an automatic converter.Ã Finally Rubbing Off? Within the past few years, more and more Americans seem to be warming up to the concept and have begun using decimals in their everyday lives. Certainly, the growing number of metric labels on many foods, drinks, health care, cleaners and other various products are clear indicators that the average American consumer should probably start learning to accept decimal numbers. This goes for geography as well. GPS unit sales to the nonmilitary population are on the rise and most (if not all) GPS units display a location using decimals. One can expect hiking, boating, driving, or any other type of navigational information to be in this same format, no matter the scale, map projection, or elevation. As the rest of the world moves forward with metric standards, the United States government will most likely feel more pressure (especially from Europe) to go totally metric for global trading purposes. Once the population finally accepts that change is coming, decimal numbers will be even more abundant and it will filter down through every aspect of American industry. Don't Panic For those hikers, boaters, drivers, orienteering students, land surveyors and others who may be used to using only D/M/S, dont worry. The conversions are out there, and its easier than you think to get results from them. Latitude and longitude lines certainly arent going anywhere - well always have those to rely on - so for now, get ready and warm up that calculator! Len Morse earned a B.S. in Geography from Towson State University and has been with the FAA for approximately 14.61 years.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Honey & Honey Products - Research Paper Example The popularly used model is AIDA model, which includes four stages, namely awareness, interest, desire and action. These four stages occur when a consumer is confronted with some form of advertisement. Honey and Honey Products are basically in their introduction phase. This provides a good opportunity for the honey company to make a long-term impression on their consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind through positive brand building activities. Advertising and media relations will focus on building awareness and long-term relationship with consumers, while sales promotions and direct marketing activities will help in generating sales and revenues. Advertisement will consist of print, television and outdoor advertisements. Print advertisement will be included in popular cooking and home magazines, targeting women. Television advertisement will include a 30 second ad, which will be featured during prime time on popular local channels. The ad will be a combination of testimonies as well as information, where features and USP of the products and brand will be discussed. Outdoor advertisement includes billboards and flyers of Honey and Honey Products at different strategic places, such as, malls, shopping centres, food market as well as health and fitness gyms. According to the diagram above, it is evident that advertisement plays a significant role during initial stages of consumer decision making, i.e. awareness and interest. Also, good and effective advertisement will help in establishing positive brand equity and brand recognition. Public relation tools will be used for the publicity of new products. It will help in placing products among target consumers through press and media, thereby increasing consumer awareness and knowledge about Honey and Honey Products. Another strategy adopted by the company is customer satisfaction through 24x7 phone lines. This will not only solve
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Equal Rights - Essay Example Was there really no means for him not to emulate Eve given the fact that he loved her? But we are no longer living on biblical times. The apple had been swallowed and the Garden of Eden is but a distant memory of our apparent disobedience from the commands of God in his paradise. An amendment pertaining to equal rights amendment, specifically, on gender equality has been long overdue. The drafted 1972 Equal Rights Amendment, with all its content and significance duly brought to notice the need for this statute. The clamor not only by various organizations that advocate its ratification can be viewed as nothing less than the legislativeÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to bring about justice especially in this ever-changing society. It is by virtue of evolution that such changes are inherent to us as a nation. The righteousness of our democracy yields the empowerment of the people not only to be theoretical but must be realized in such a manner that it is in constant concurrence with the applicability of the manner of the times we live in. No longer are we, regardless of gender, mere audience to our own existence. The intent for which this amendment is based on gives supremacy to the need for substantial change that must be implemented. This conflict in the Constitution, the supreme law of the land, must be addressed with expediency. Over a century preceding the adoption of the Equal Protection Clause, it has yet to be given its Ã¢â¬ËteethÃ¢â¬â¢ so to speak in the decisions of the Supreme Court. In a 1983 law from the state of Illinois which prohibits women from practicing law, the court ruled that it was in accordance with the Constitution as such that no law was violated in its implementation. Furthermore, it had become more apparent that the courts cite in its opinion the prevalence of the belief that man should be the protector of women and that a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s primary duty not only in the eyes of the family but of the law, is to be a good wife and mother as such is the law of the
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Operations Management Essay Garland Company is a company known for its excellence when it comes to manufacturing product representing various combinations of reinforcement ma materials, surfacing materials, polymer components, and specific additives such as fire retardants, fibers, and fillers. The company originated in from US in 1895 and to extended distribution in Europe, Garland Company established their branch in Gloucester, England in 2001 called Garland Company U. K. , Ltd. For Garland Company, the best formula for future success is the combination of solid culture, traditional values, high integrity plus the product, strategies, service and technologies. That is why the employees of Garland understand clearly their importance in the company. The GarlandÃ¢â¬â¢s ISO certification for research and development started in 1998 and up to now they still live up to that quality standard by producing quality products. Every aspect of Garland manufacturing is monitored through ISO 9000 certification processes, which include regular independent audits to ensure predictable, consistent adherence to world-class standards of quality. That is why the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products are backed-up with some of the strongest warranties in the commercial and industrial roofing and building maintenance industries.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
In the novel, The Moviegoer, by Walker Percy, the narrator, Jack Bolling, believes that everyone has a role to play and that their happiness is predicated upon how well they play their given role. He also believes that people get trapped in Ã¢â¬Å"everydaynessÃ¢â¬ and become Ã¢â¬Å"deadÃ¢â¬ . Jack BollingÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to marry Kate Cutrer is partly based on these beliefs of his, but it is also based upon the discovery that Sharon is engaged herself. Kate Cutrer has some mental problems of her own, and, being Jack BollingÃ¢â¬â¢s cousin, he learns about them and observes them. As he goes throughout his days, Jack Bolling tries to avoid the typical roles of people; the Ã¢â¬Å"everydaynessÃ¢â¬ . When he thinks about falling into a pattern, it makes him physically sick. He is afraid to be normal, to be just another person in the world. It seems as if he wants to Ã¢â¬Å"insert himself into the worldÃ¢â¬ , but he is afraid to because he also wants to play the roles that people want him to play, such as his aunt. His aunt thinks that she knows him pretty well, but discovers in the end that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know him at all because he was always trying to be what she wanted him to be. Kate Cutrer, on the other hand, wants to be someone who just blends in with all around her and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about making herself known or standing out. But with her problems, she canÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to do that. One reason for Jack Bollin g and Kate Cutrer getting married could be that the other is what they secretly desire to be themselves. When Kate Cut... Walker Percys The Moviegoer Essay -- essays research papers In the novel, The Moviegoer, by Walker Percy, the narrator, Jack Bolling, believes that everyone has a role to play and that their happiness is predicated upon how well they play their given role. He also believes that people get trapped in Ã¢â¬Å"everydaynessÃ¢â¬ and become Ã¢â¬Å"deadÃ¢â¬ . Jack BollingÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to marry Kate Cutrer is partly based on these beliefs of his, but it is also based upon the discovery that Sharon is engaged herself. Kate Cutrer has some mental problems of her own, and, being Jack BollingÃ¢â¬â¢s cousin, he learns about them and observes them. As he goes throughout his days, Jack Bolling tries to avoid the typical roles of people; the Ã¢â¬Å"everydaynessÃ¢â¬ . When he thinks about falling into a pattern, it makes him physically sick. He is afraid to be normal, to be just another person in the world. It seems as if he wants to Ã¢â¬Å"insert himself into the worldÃ¢â¬ , but he is afraid to because he also wants to play the roles that people want him to play, such as his aunt. His aunt thinks that she knows him pretty well, but discovers in the end that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know him at all because he was always trying to be what she wanted him to be. Kate Cutrer, on the other hand, wants to be someone who just blends in with all around her and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about making herself known or standing out. But with her problems, she canÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to do that. One reason for Jack Bollin g and Kate Cutrer getting married could be that the other is what they secretly desire to be themselves. When Kate Cut...
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
In a monopoly, and at the expense of supply in the market one entity to control and demand, and the degree of the price offered and the control exercised by the institution or individual is greater. Predatory pricing. This feature of the advantages of a monopoly consumers. These are short term market gains when prices dropped to meet the demand of rare product. Suppliers and consumers directly benefit from an attempt to monopolize the company to increase the sale of business marketing. Price flexibility With regard to the demand for the product or service offered by the company monopoly or individual, and is dictated by the price elasticity of the ratio of the absolute value of the increase in prices and demand in the market. Lack of creativity At the expense of absolute control of the market, and monopolies display a tendency to lose efficiency over a period of time. With one product lifetime, and innovative design and marketing techniques rear seat. Lack of competition. When the market was designed to serve the monopoly and the lack of commercial competition or the lack of goods and viable products shrinking the scope of Ã¢â¬Å"perfect competition. Ã¢â¬ 2-How monopoly arises Monopoly arises in a variety of circumstances: there are types of goods and a service does not accept by its nature, or not in the public interest to multiple producers, itÃ¢â¬â¢s called natural monopolies, for example: to provide the city with water, electricity, or the trains running between two countries. Often assume the state or municipal authorities to manage these services, or to grant a concession to a private company, subject to strict control. Monopoly may arise in an industry, the growth of a project, and it seized on other projects. Or as a result of grab or merge of small projects in the large-scale project, Monopoly May arise due to agreement between the projects owners in a particular industry to determine the price, or divide markets among themselves, known as (cartel), and in this case there are a number of producers, such agreement among them makes them a monopoly power. Most of the countries have been working on the subject of monopolies control. 3-How we can regulate the monopoly Pricing at marginal cost Economists have for many decades argued the benefits of setting public utility tariffs on the basis of marginal cost. This view is expressed in many classic economic texts on regulation. Price discrimination One common objection to marginal-cost pricing is that, in the presence of economies of scale, a simple linear price equal to marginal cost would not allow the regulated firm to recover sufficient revenue to cover its total costs. Ramsey pricing In those cases where the regulator is unable to set the marginal price for each service equal to its marginal cost, economic theory still places central emphasis on reducing the deadweight loss. Incremental cost The deadweight-loss hypothesis has a hard time explaining why regulators fail to pursue policies which are efficient under the conventional economic theory, such as Ramsey pricing. Price / service stability. Another puzzle for the conventional economic approach to regulation is the heavy emphasis on price stability. There is a sizeable amount of evidence that price and service stability is one of the primary concerns of regulators. Alternative regulation Ã¢â¬ ¢ To encourage the productive efficiency of the monopolist. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To eliminate the incentive to waste resources seeking to obtain a position of monopoly. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To protect the sunk investment of the monopolist 4-Give some examples of monopoly type of monopolyThe main characteristicexamples. NaturalAccess to rare and not easily reproducible elements of productionMonopolies operating in the sphere of production is mineral deposits of strategic importance for the national economy technologicalFeature production: in this technology is not enough consumer demand to support many competitive firmsEnterprise for the production of specific goods, such as infrastructure for the operation of natural monopolies. GeographicCompetition due to the non-rationality of the territorial limited due to the effect of geographic barriersPublic transport companies infrastructureInfrastructure network Ã¢â¬â a network that supply products between distant from each other (both in space and in time), economic agentsBackbone enterprises in energy, rail transport , heat, gas and water supply patentUsing a unique patented technologyNatural monopolies are producing high-tech products, such as medicine StateMarkets related to the exclusive jurisdiction of the stateDefense, aeronautics administrative commandOperating in a command systemNatural monopolies in the administrative-command system.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s technology has changed the view of world. Among them computers are one of the best creations of the technology. Computers are the best closer look of new eraÃ¢â¬â¢s technology. Computers are very useful in our routine life as a source of entertainment, as a medium of education and as a one way of business. First, Computers play a role of entertainer in our life. We can play a game on the computer. We can also download and upload games from the internet or from the game DVD. We can also enjoy music and movies too. For example, If you want to see movies, you can see it online through internet or you can see movie on DVD. Same way, if you like to listen music, you can upload songs from the CD or you get songs from online from the particular music sites. There are so many sites available on the internet like youtube.com, videoshare.com for the movies and video songs. This way we can get relaxation by using computers. Second is as a source of an education. Computers are the best companion for the students. Computer has many kind of services which can be helpful for the students for instance microsoft word, power point, HTML, java, etc. We can use microsoft word for writing purpose, we can use power point to make slide shows. Moreover, there are so many study sites available for online tutoring. It is really a very easy and cheap way for the study. You can find your any type of study related question to study online. In short, computers make study easy and interesting. Last but not least use of computer is as a medium of e-commerce. Today in our busy world people avoid to waste time for their shopping. Now a day consumers like to buy and sell their stuff online. Best example of online shopping is e-bay. On this particular site you get all necessary things like books, electric and electronic items, clothes etc. Moreover from e-bay, you can sell stuff too. I particularly love this site.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Gap Labor Problems Essays Gap Labor Problems Essay Gap Labor Problems Essay Major ethical issues: Gap Inc. is a multinational casual apparel chain retail store with Ã¢â¬Å"3000 supplier in 50 different countriesÃ¢â¬ . The manufacturing environment, human right treatment and labour policy vary substantially among suppliers from substandard to appalling. Gap Inc. Ã¢â¬â¢s customer were deceived to assume the products were Ã¢â¬Å"Made in USAÃ¢â¬ , under United States labour standards and human right policies; whilst, manufacturing factories were located in Saipan Ã¢â¬âa U. S. protectorate in Southeast Asia. Although Saipan conformed to majority of U. S labour laws, it was exempt from federal minimum wage laws. Furthermore, the majority of the manufacturing factories located in Saipan are foreign companies from such countries as china and Thailand. WorkersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights have been systematically violated in supplier factories in other localities such as Central America, Thailand, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Mexico. Workers were misled into entering contracts, advertised as a well-paying job in USA. In fact the jobs were located in Saipan and paid $3 an hour, moreover, the contract required workers to pay a hefty recruiting fee. Significant human right violation has been committed by suppliers contracted by Gap and other major retailer. Basic human right violation occurred ranging from subjection to sexual harassment, lack of clean water, not being able to use bathrooms and harsh and cruel punishment as a method of discipline. Furthermore, employees were forced into consenting to a contract prohibiting marital arrangements and political or religious activities. Fair labour policy violation came to light upon the employment of minors to fulltime positions. : Additionally, employees failed to pay for overtime. Rampant harassment used as anti-union initiatives. Pregnancy test was required prior to employment. Underage teens have been hired as young as 13 with full time schedule and minimum pay. In one instance a 14 years old girl died of exhaustion after working several 14 hours a day shifts. As a part of their employment contract, employees were forbidden to ask for salary increase, nor participate in union activity or look for alternative jobs. In some instances, workers were given high quota of production and if they failed to meet the demand they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t receive payment or were forced to perform Ã¢â¬Å"volunteer unpaid timeÃ¢â¬ . Safety was a major issue in the working environment. For instant, teenage workers in China worked in a room that reeked of toxic fumes; some factories had more than a 1000 citations. Dwelling provided for workers was insanitary with exposed electrical wiring. American union of apparel worker claimed, they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to compete with these foreign suppliers due to these low cost sweatshops. Gap denied such accusations by shifting the accountability to the suppliers, and insisting that resolution of worker plight is the responsibility of their employers who employed them and not of Gap. Utilitarianism Perspective Utilitarianism is a consequence based theory which suggests; those actions are permissible that create the most overall good (utility) for the greatest number of people ( audience). Utilitarianism is the greatest advocate of free market and globalization. Free market encourages efficiency in the market, which pave the way to optimal distribution of cost and benefit in a society. Issues arising from unfair labour policies, human right conditions and hazardous working environment provided in the case is argued in such way that society in these underdeveloped Ã¢â¬âsometime developing- countries would benefit greatly from employment, economic prosperity and increase standard of livings in the long run. Concurrently, multinational companies in societies in which such products are marketed will benefit from lower costs, attaining competitive advantage in the global market. The ripple effects of their competitive advantage will reach their employees, community in which they operate, government and shareholders. Moreover, lower cost leads to more efficiency which translates into lower prices for consumers. Based on this argument, the complete chain of stakeholders including employees, employers and end users would benefit overall. Conversely, many would object to the notion emphasized by utilitarianism, based on the fact that the pursuit of self-interest tends to lead to injustice. The utility of higher bottom line for Gap Inc. will adversely affect workers and their society by subjecting them to inhumane treatments. There is also first generation problem that arise from such practices. By the time market correct itself and provide better and safer working condition for these workers, a whole generation of workerÃ¢â¬â¢s human and labour rights have been sacrificed. Many of these businesses have tremendous lobbying power that could slow down or prevent any initiative targeted to correct aforementioned conditions. The objective and tangible aspect of positive views of utilitarianism such as higher employment and bottom line are measurable as oppose to endangering human lives and impairment of their fundamental rights. Deontological Perspective Deontological ethics identifies the ethical duty to treat everyone with respect for their autonomy and rationality. People have fundamental interest that overrides the collective will and overall utility. Such interest is protected under Deontological ethics, hence, others have the duty to comply and respect these individual rights. Deontological theory also promotes free market. The Gap Inc. Ã¢â¬â¢s corporate executive, Mr. Drexler has a duty to stockholders to conduct business in accordance with their interest. The Gap Inc. is a private entity, thus free to pursue the best interest of The Gap Inc. Contracting suppliers in Saipan leads to drastically lower cost of goods sold which in turn maximizes profit and attains higher return on investment. This is fundamentally, the best interest of for-profit organizations. Deontological argument fails to notice that property rights are not unconditional; centuries of legal precedent transpired from case laws and regulatory legislations. Oversee regulations serve to expound wide range of managerial obligations to safeguard rights of employees. Gap ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ property right shall not be used in a way that will infringe the basic rights of the workers. Such argument will allow employers to treat the workers as mean to the end of stockholders. Treating workers as rational autonomous beings is at the cornerstone of demonological theory. Current conditions bear a resemblance to treating workers as objects, merely a manufacturing machine with no rights. Furthermore, in a democratic and sensible society mangers take Ã¢â¬Å"positive rightsÃ¢â¬ into considerations. Positive rights are those that managers have the duty to provide like safe working condition, fair treatment, respect and intention to provide better living standards. Gap Response Assessment According the piece Gap was one of the first companies to adapt a code of ethics for its factories. In response to rising criticism and precedents facing the company and its industry competitors, Gap updated its code of conduct. This was a pre-emptive initiative to battle sweatshops conditions in the factories. There were also guidelines for safety and labour practices. According to the article codes of conduct adopted by Gap, suppliers must avoid discriminatory conducts, forced labour, prison labour, child employment bellow the age of 14, and promote respect for union efforts, provide safe working environment and pay legal minimum wages. Additionally, the code of conducts promoted respect for local environment regulation and obedience of the local laws and regulations. These guidelines resemble a minimalism approach. According to Tom Donaldson, business is set to follow economic interests to the extent as to follow minimum moral rights set forth by UN declaration of universal human rights. Hence, the Gap should merely acknowledge the negative duties not to cause harm. Many of the aforementioned nations have proper laws and regulation in placed. However, there is the lack of administrative enforcement. Another aspect of GapÃ¢â¬â¢s response is how they handled criticism and litigations. First criticism arrived from an article published in The New York Times by columnist Bob Herbert. The article illustrated the plight of hundreds of thousands of young workers in Central America who made apparel for Gap under conditions which violated their human rights, rights of collective bargaining and furthermore, subjection to torture, cruel and unreasonable punishments. In several other instances labour activists staged demonstration that illustrated the conditions of workers in Saipan and other locations. The activists demanded Gap stand responsible for the remorseful working conditions and to intervene in creating better working environment in those factories. Additionally, they requested an independent audit report to be conducted of the factories to portray an accurate picture of the employment conditions. Initially, Gap resisted such demands and criticism by relying upon their own monitory reports and account from supplier owners. Furthermore, since the workers employed by such factories are not direct labor of Gap, responsibility, if any, rests with the subcontractors. Gap also repelled the call for independent inquiry in order to control the flow of information to their consumers. On January 1999, a lawsuit was brought against the Gap Inc. on behalf of 50,000 factory workers at Saipan. The lawsuit accused Gap and 25 other retailer of violation of workersÃ¢â¬â¢ human rights. Moreover, the lawsuit accused Gap of deception of consumers into believing the products offered by the company were Ã¢â¬Å"Made in USAÃ¢â¬ under United States labour and minimum wage laws, even though they were made in Saipan under inhumane, unsafe conditions with total lack of regulations. Additionally, the lawsuit revealed that the workers were misled into entering contracts that advertised a well-paying job in USA. In fact the jobs were in Saipan and paid $3 an hour and made employees promise to pay a hefty recruiting fee. Sadly, employees were further required to surrender their basic human and employee rights. Gap refused to settle the lawsuit outside the courtroom unlike the other defendant named in the lawsuit, on the basis that settlement would express admission to guilt. Finally, Gap updated their codes of conduct to address the issues brought up by the lawsuit regarding the foreign employment practices. They also agreed to pay $20 million to compensate the workers in Saipan factories. On May 2004, in face of all the criticism and lawsuits targeted towards the company, the Gap Inc. Ã¢â¬â¢s new management accepted to publish a public report of the conditions and employment practices in their oversee supplier factories. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s decision was praised by many labour activists for being a step forward in ethical embracement. The company prioritized respect for union formation. Some argued workers lack the knowledge of their fundamental rights due to cultural and ethical relativism, so they become victims of a so called well-run prisonsÃ¢â¬ Recommendations In terms of the Gap Inc. Ã¢â¬â¢s appropriateness of responses to the aforementioned issues, it must be noted that creation of GapÃ¢â¬â¢s code of ethical conduct was a proactive tool to battle sweatshop conditions. Especially for the fact that it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a defensive response, rather a pre-emptive move to avoid catastrophic precedents. Lack of proper monitoring and enforcement of such codes of conduct seemed rather peculiar. Gap should have conducted audits with more frequency and served to eliminate such adverse problems before they become to light. Employees are rational, autonomous individuals, and thus have certain basic needs and interests. According to Maslows hierarchy of needs, human beings basic needs rank from Physiological, Safety, Belonging, Esteem to self-actualization. Physiological needs are required for human survival. Assuming food, shelter and clothing were provided, humans need for sexual companionship and procreation is a part of such needs; in this case marriage was frowned upon by employer Ã¢â¬âsuppliers- by means of contract. Safety needs is both most critical and lacking in this case. Harsh punishments abolished workers personal safety. Manipulative and deceitful contract terms endangered workers property rights and freedom. Health and safety is vital to human wellbeing and freedom. Such rights or needs should be protected from being infringed upon and traded away in the process of bargaining. Moving up any further in level of need is redundant since workers most basic need must be met before a higher level of needs is achieved. Without the attainment of lower level needs, sense of belongingness and self-esteem are inexistent and self-actualization will never be met. Corporation are held morally and socially accountable for their actions and how they fit into the fabric of a society. Diffusion of responsibility occurs when there are a number of participants in the arrangement and responsibility is not clearly assigned or enforced. Gap holds the supplier responsible for the affair of workers. Suppliers are regulated by government and laws, which in many cases are never upheld. Gap is the ultimate beneficiary of this supply chain and must be responsible for the conduct of suppliers. According to CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility, there are four level of responsibility for Gap Inc. as a corporation. First it must be economical; this is the commercial vitality of any for-profit organization and is necessary to the survival of the company and is private property of the stockholders. Any initiative employed toward resolving these ethical issues seem to have economic significance. As mentioned in the case consumers are more likely to avoid shopping from a brand associated with sweatshops. Second level is the Legal responsibility. Gap must obey the law applied both in US and in the local laws in which these factories are located and operated. It must be noted that although many of the countries aforementioned have fairly appropriate regulation in place, lack of social development prevent such governments from enforcing these regulations. The Gap Inc. or any of its suppliers must not take advantage of weak administration. Third level is the ethical responsibility. As mentioned previously, Gap is the ultimate beneficiary of this supply chain. Although suppliers are directly in charge of these workers, Gap holds an immense power to prevent such unethical behaviour from occurring. Therefore, the company must resiliently monitor the conduct of its suppliers, given the high risk of non-compliance. Protection of human rights rank at the top of issues requiring urgent resolution. No physical or psychological trauma should be endured by workers. Subsequently, health and safety in factories must be provided as it is essential to the wellbeing of workers. Employment rights and regulation must be fully upheld and respected. Subjection to deceptive advertisement must be eliminated to both workers and end users. End users must know the condition of factories in which the merchandise is being manufactured. Workers must not be deceived into contract with dissipated terms. A fair wage should be paid to workers which is comparable not essentially equal to workers in United States. The aforementioned processors will to address apparel worker concern in US who are concerned with uncompetitive low wages paid in Saipan and or other developed countries. Forth and finally, the Gap Inc. has philanthropic social responsibilities. As aforesaid Gap uses minimalism approach in which it acknowledges only Ã¢â¬Å"negative dutiesÃ¢â¬ not to cause harm. They should alter their perception by seeking maximalist approach. The Gap Inc. holds tremendous influence, power, and resources which could be used towards providing positive benefits and promotes better conditions in the community where they directly or indirectly operate. The ripple effect of such practices will repair the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s damaged identity and image.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue and Church Architecture American architect Bertram G. Goodhue (born April 28, 1869 in Pomfret, Connecticut) was an innovator who combined Gothic and Hispanic designs with modern ideas. He revolutionized church (ecclesiastical) architecture by reawakening Medieval traditions, with a focus on modern detailing within traditional designs. His fanciful Spanish Churrigueresque buildings for the Panama-California Exposition brought new energy to Spanish Colonial Revival architecture in the United States. Later in his career, Goodhue moved beyond Gothic ornamentation to explore classical forms, designing landmark buildings such as the Nebraska State Capitol. Goodhue could not afford to attend college, although he was a known sketch artist throughout the New Haven military academy he attended. Instead of college, at age fifteen he went to work in the New York office of Renwick, Aspinwall and Russell. For six years he studied under James Renwick, Jr., architect of many public buildings and churches, including Smithsonian Institute Castle in Washington, DC and Grace Church and St. Patricks Cathedral in New York City. In 1891, he joined Ralph Adams Cram and Charles Wentworth in a Boston partnership that later became Cram, Goodhue Ferguson. The firm opened a branch in New York City, which by 1913 Goodhue had made his own. Although Goodhues early works were noted for their high Gothic style, he later adopted a Romanesque style. By the end of his career, his work tended toward simple, classical lines. The Los Angeles Central Library, completed after his death, has elements of Art Deco design. Today Goodhue is considered an American modernist. Youve probably seen his work, without knowing it. Goodhue is said to have invented two font styles: Merrymount, designed for the Merrymount Press of Boston; and Cheltenham, designed for the Cheltenham Press in New York City; Cheltenham was adopted by The New York Times for their headline typeface and by the L.L. Bean company for their distinctive logo. Goodhue died in New York City on April 23, 1924. Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue Architectural Drawings and Papers, 1882-1980 are archived at Columbia University in New York. Selected Projects Attributed to Goodhue: Bertram G. Goodhue was a known collaborator in architectural projects. The 1910 Cadet Chapel at West Point in New York is attributed to Cram, Goodhue, and Ferguson, although Goodhue was the lead architect. Projects from his own New York City office took advantage of a growing United States market of public and ecclesiastic architecture from coast to coast. His most notable works include the First Baptist Church (1912) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the Church of the Intercession (1915) and St. Bartholomews Church (St. Barts, 1918) both in New York City. California works include the 1915 Panama-California Exposition Buildings in San Diego, the 1926 Los Angeles Central Public Library (LAPL), and the 1924Ã Master Plan for the California Institute of Technology. In between New York and California look for the 1922 Nebraska State Capitol building in Lincoln, Nebraska and the 1924 National Academy of Sciences Building in Washington, DC. In the Words of Goodhue: ...the trouble in our houses today is that we want everything to seem rich and extravagant- we want money, and then we want to show it in our surroundings. - from The New York Times, A Renowned Architects Home of His Own by Christopher Gray, January 22, 2006 [accessed April 8, 2014] Learn More: Bertram Goodhue: His Life And Residential Architecture by Romy Wyllie (2007)Buy on AmazonBertram Grosvenor Goodhue by Richard Oliver, MIT Press, 1983Buy on AmazonAlice in Wonderland - A Play With Illustrations by Bertram GoodhueBuy on AmazonA book of architectural and decorative drawings by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, 1924Buy on Amazon Source: The Alexander S. Lawson Archive, Ithaca Typothetae at www.lawsonarchive.com/april-23/ [accessed April 26, 2012]
Sunday, November 3, 2019
The Special Christmas Time - Essay Example The essay "The Special Christmas Time" presents the description of author's impression regarding Christmas. The time of joy, presents and pleasant surprises! You never know when you come to realize new things in your life. It seems that Christmas has a unique power to open the doors to new personal discoveries. Hurrying to work and back home, one gets into a circle of everyday problems, unable to see and perceive the real joys of every day. Christmas time brings you to a totally different world getting you from that circle and whirling into a world of wonders and fairy discoveries. Looking at the turmoil of Christmas time Ã¢â¬â people hurrying, buying presents, decorating their homes Ã¢â¬â you get the mood of the holiday, some burning wish that something unexpected and good can happen on the Eve of the greatest of the Christian holidays. You expect this good to come from some unexpected source and look forward to the wonder to come from the distance while this wonder is really within you and nobody but you are responsible for the miracle to enter your life. The awareness of the miracle came to me this Christmas. The preparation for the celebration was the same like other years Ã¢â¬â the same excited people choosing presents to their relatives and friends, the same decoration on the neighboring houses, the same wish of unexpected discoveries. This year I bought some presents for my wife and children. As always, I arranged everything near New Year Tree. Suddenly in the glossy toy ball hanging from the tree branch.
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Reader response - Essay Example Ideally, it is factual that the pursuit to any goal is always very challenging and obstacles can prevent somebody from achieving the desired goals. Doubts will always jeopardize our chances of succeeding. Notably, perseverance is what distinguishes winners from losers and quitters never win. With utmost dedication and perseverance, we can overcome all the challenges in our journey to success and emerge as victors. The poem starts with a serious acclamation urging the audience to Ã¢â¬Å"Roll the diceÃ¢â¬ ¦. if youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to try, go all the way. Otherwise, do not even start.Ã¢â¬ This statement seeks to encourage the audience to start the pursuit, take chances, take risks, and make a commitment with a hope to succeed. Ideally, rolling the dice signals the beginning of a game of chances where the player can either win or lose. Nevertheless, despite the possibility of negative result, a dedicated player must make up their mind, start the game, and hope to win. The poet asserts that such a decision should not carry any doubts and the audience must commit themselves to the end. Indeed, trying is always not enough since the end justifies the means. A double-hearted person will mostly lose because they do not believe in themselves and in the system. As such, the poet urges the audience to persevere and go all the way to the end if they dare to try. After all we can only ascertain the end result if the player finishes the challenge. Otherwise, the poet notes that there is no need to start the pursuit if one does not have a commitment to go all the way. Indeed, having double standards, doubts, and lack of confidence will lead to poor results of the pursuit. The poet goes ahead to establish the possible challenges and consequences that might arise from such a commitment. Ideally, in making a serious decision to pursue a certain goal to the end with all means, one must denounce so many things, people, pleasures, and other
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Discussion Question week 10 - Essay Example This site became approved after the US FDA audit at Jigani, which is another plant owned by Hikal Limited. The company promised to give all research contracts to Peter Nightingale, who owns Acoris Research Ltd, Pune, India. Nightingale is an expert in the pharmaceutical and other chemical sectors. By giving the research contract to this company, Hikal will offer many job opportunities to Indians. This is because Acoris Research Ltd will use Indians to carry out the research since they know their community well. Local people benefit from local job opportunities since they have strong relations with the communities where they live. When a manufacturing plant becomes established, local people become given first opportunities so that they can accommodate the activities, particularly, when they involve environmental pollution. 3 Some residents who lack enough competence end up working in new plants, since managers lower qualification levels to fill different job positions. Eventually, these employees enhance their job skills and confidence in their fields, which makes other local employers admire them. This, in turn, increases their wages and employability, in the long run. Ã¢â¬Å"Hikal to begin API manufacturing facility operations by June 2012.Ã¢â¬ Business Standard.com. Last modified November 3 2012.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Disadvantages of gm food Abstract This report strives to provide an insight upon the numerous disadvantages of GM food and crops pertaining to humans and the environment. The fundamental core of this report concerns the human health risks posed by the consumption of GM food by the community. Safety tests for GM foods are scant and sparse, and toxins as well as allergenic components in these GM foods are unpredictable. Alternatively, GM crops prove to be disparaging to the environment. As a result of GM crops being grown, GM superweeds exist and the earths biodiversity is disrupted. Conversely, GM crops incur substantially high costs. Cost of seeds for GM crops is excessively priced and agri-biotechnological companies stand a chance to abuse this cost in order to reap more profits. 1.0 Introduction Genetically modified foods, otherwise recognized as GM foods, pertain to crop plants or animals engineered for consumption through the application of the latest techniques for molecular biology (Whitman, 2000). Desired traits and characteristics such as increased resistance against pests and improved nutritional content are expressed through the modification of these plants in laboratories. Newly improved crops have been known to demonstrate resistance towards pests, require less water, and generally thrive as well as develop in less than optimal growing environments. Genetic engineering was first discovered in the year 1983, and since then has been utilized for the potential benefit of mankind. However, GM foods have made an impact on the world as it is today. As avowed by Whitman (2000), GM foods have been actively protested against by environmental organizations in Europe and public interest groups for months, and the matter of genetic manipulation has been propelled to the vanguard of public awareness by contemporary disputable studies regarding the effects of genetically-modified corn pollen on monarch butterflies. In the United States of America, research has proven that in the year 2001, more than 60% of processed foods in the country contain bio-engineered foodstuffs such as genetically-modified soybeans and corn (Sakko, 2002). Though there are many queries regarding the safety of such GM foods, in addition to its advantages and disadvantages, the actual question arising from such an issue remains evident: Should GM food be banned for the benefit of mankind? Despite claims that GM food is beneficial to human health, environmentally friendly and its benefits outweigh its disadvantages; GM food should be banned for the greater good as it evidently poses human health risks, is environmentally hazardous, and is costly. This report exposes the disadvantages and adverse effects of GM foods on humans as well as the environment. The scope of this report is global, as GM foods are present in almost all countries around the world and GM crops are on the rise in replacing conventional crops in order to to conform to the needs of humans. 2.0 Human Health Risks Many shortcomings arise from the consumption of GM foods. First of all is the endangerment of human health. It is possible that by introducing foreign genes into the genetic make-up of a plant may result in unexpected and negative impacts upon the wellbeing of humans. As the application of genetic engineering is relatively new to the human society, there is inadequate scientific study regarding the many dangers to health caused by GM foods, and safety test technology is insufficient in gauging the potential dangers to humans. Aside from that, GM foods may carry within themselves unpredictable toxins and might possibly increase the threat of allergenic reactions. 2.1 Scarcity of Safety Tests Knowledge regarding health risks due to GM foods is sparse. As affirmed by Domingo (2000), many opinions exist concerning health risks of genetically modified foods. However, actual publications and information on GM food toxicity remains scarce. It is relatively harder to appraise the safety of foods originating from crops compared to individual chemicals, food additives, or drugs. This is because of the genetic composition of crop foods that is much more complex, and may vary in accordance to discrepancies in growth and agronomic conditions. An example of this is the initial and sole assessment of a GM fruit, the FLAVR SAVR tomato, as assigned by Calgene. This GM tomato was cultivated through the insertion of kanr genes into a tomato by an antisense genetic modification method. Outcomes asserted that no major differences in overall mineral and vitamin as well as in toxic glycoalkaloid levels were observed. Hence, the GM tomatoes are considered to be as harmless as their parent tomatoes (Pusztai, 2001). This is undeniable that the safety test in regards to the safety of the FLAVR SAVR tomato is oversimplified, and does not encompass all aspects of how a safety test should be. As such, the safety test is defectively planned and executed, rendering the conclusion that the GM tomatoes were safe implausible. 2.2 Unpredictable Toxins and Allergenic Components Unwanted consequences can also be a result of the insertion of genes into the genetic make-up of GM crops, as some of the ways and methods the incorporated genes express themselves or the way they affect the exhibition of the genes of the crop are evidently random and mostly erratic. This could result in the production of unfamiliar toxins and allergenic components when consumed unknowingly. This is as evidenced in a toxicity test done on mice. Mice were fed with GM potatoes induced with a Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki Cry1 toxin, a toxin imbued within the genetic composition of the potato for the sake of repelling insects. This was shown to have caused villus epithelial cell hypertrophy and multinucleation, disrupted microvilli, mitochondrial degeneration, increased numbers of lysosomes and autophagic vacuoles and activation of crypt Paneth cells in the mice (Pusztai, 2001). These results still manifest despite claims of the contrary by its producers and manufacturers, resulting in widespread confusion and fear within its consumers. In another case, a proposition to splice a gene originating from Brazilian nuts into soybeans was rejected due to the trepidation of resulting in unforeseen allergic reactions. GM food derived from modified GM crops is known to trigger new allergies through the synthesis of new proteins by the imported genes introduced. Almost all food allergens are protein-based, and they are likely to be comparatively small and resistant to heat, acid and stomach enzyme degradation (Chow, 2009). Although crops frequently used as staple foods contain thousands of dissimilar proteins, relatively few are known to be allergenic. Though so, their allergenic potential might have been altered through the use of genetic engineering, rendering even foods not generally known to instigate allergies to do so. Should a host plant be noted to express allergenic properties, bringing in new genes into its genetic make-up could actually lead to the allergenic proteins being over-expressed, making the plant more all ergenic. Beneficial to Human Health Proponents of GM foods constantly assert that GM foods are beneficial to human health. They contend that GM foods possess medical advantages, and are able to be modified to make edible vaccines. However, this argument is inadequate. GM foods are still being researched on, and the assumption that they are able to function as supplements is dangerously over-rated. Data and information regarding the effects numerous types of GM foods are insufficient, in spite of everything that those who support the commercialisation of GM foods state. Should GM foods be released to the population without proper examination and regulation, many lives would be endangered, in contrast to what is as claimed due to the unknown effects of many allergens to the human body. As such, GM foods are actually detrimental, and should not be acclaimed to be advantageous to human health when it has not been proven to be so. 3.0 Environmentally Hazardous Additionally, another disadvantage due to the cultivation and breeding of GM crops is the risks it poses to the environment. Numerous environmental activists and advocates of the environment have all made known their concerns and apprehensions regarding the threat GM crops create for the ecosystem. Tempering the genetic make-up of crops to produce GM food might consequently result in the manifest of GM Superweeds. Also, the biodiversity of the environment will be altered or could potentially be disrupted at a larger scale. 3.1 Creation of GM Superweeds Crops genetically manipulated to be able to generate their own pesticides or to be herbicide-resistant pose a dangerous danger to the environment. These crop plants altered genetically to be tolerant to herbicides and pesticides might cross-breed with the local flora, causing the herbicide-resistant genes to be transferred from crop plant to weed. As avowed by Cummins (1999), the growing of these GM crops will inevitably ensue in the emergence of weeds that are resilient to pesticides and herbicides, resulting in the need for stronger, more potent forms of toxic chemicals to liberate the pests. These superweeds will then be a menace to the GM crops in turn, and even to the environment as a whole. This is as illustrated by the emergence of the first superweed, a plant that cant be killed by almost anything, in Canada. A single canola plant in Ottawa was discovered to be resistant to numerous types of pesticides (gmwatch.org, 2001). Canola plants contrived to help farmers in increasing their productivity had instead escaped and cross-bred with one another to produce offsprings that are even more resistant than their parents. Most pesticides werent able to exterminate these super canola weeds, which were wrecking havoc in wheat fields and other prospective areas in which farmers dont want them to grow in. 3.2 Disruption of Biodiversity The notion of biodiversity denotes the wide variation of organisms in a given ecosystem. Numerous interactions between these organisms keep the biodiversity of an environment high, and when disturbed will result in an often adverse if not disadvantages effect to the particular ecosystem. Wild type plants in an area will typically be overwhelmed when a GM crop is planted in its vicinity due to the superiority and better adaptation of the crop to its environment compared to the wild type plants. The GM crops will then be competing with the wild type plants for essential resources like light, water, and important nutrients in the soil for survival, and will most likely prevail. The subjugated wild type plant will then either be extinct or be wiped off from that area. This will then indirectly affect the survival of other organisms that might have relied on the wild type plant for food, shelter, or protection. For instance, research has proven that the plantation of a GM plant, B.t. corn resulted in a high mortality rate in monarch butterfly caterpillars (Whitman, 2000). Unfortunately, the ideal conditions for the plantation of B.t. corn coincides with that of the milkweed plant, which is the staple food for monarch butterfly caterpillars. Milkweed plants were unable to compete and were wiped off in large amounts due to the prevalence of B.t. corn in the ecosystem. This caused monarch butterfly caterpillars to perish in significant numbers owing to insufficient food supply. Hence, this perfectly illustrates the adversity of GM crops to the environment. Can Be Engineered to Maintain Quality of Soil Supporters of GM food relentlessly insist that GM crops are able to be genetically altered to maintain the quality of the soil regardless of the nutrients required. They claim that akin to herbicide-resistance, GM crops can be engineered to return the nutrients it derives from the soil, to the soil, thus sustaining the nature of the soil. However, this assertion is derisory. In fact, as verified by Cummins (1999), due to the mounting use of herbicides owing to the herbicide-resistant traits typical to GM crops, the effectiveness of pesticides will gradually decrease. This will subsequently increase the use of even more toxic pesticides by farmers intending to rid their fields of weeds without any detrimental effect to their crops. Should these super-pesticides be used excessively without moderation, pesticide residues in soil and on crops will inexorably increase, rendering the soil infertile and even poisonous. Therefore, it can be deduced that the cultivation of GM crops is harmfu l to the environment. 4.0 High Costs Introducing a GM food into the market worldwide proves to be a costly and arduous process, in which companies involved would then be inclined to ensure positive, profitable revenue for their investment towards its manufacture and marketing. To avoid copyright infringement, these companies then patent new plant engineering technologies and GM crops produced by them respectively. This would inevitably raise the costs of seeds of GM. In addition, agri-biotechnological companies might abuse the costs of these seeds to generate more profit and proceeds to the dejection of farmers. 4.1 Excessive Cost of Seeds Due to the patenting of GM crops and new crop engineering technologies, the price of seeds of GM crops has soared to astonishing heights as the prices are dictated by their respective agri-biotech companies. Certain breeds of GM crops and their seeds can only be created by certain companies, and these companies will then have full monopoly over its pricing. As such, prices of such GM seeds are not regulated and can even be as much as ÃâÃ £10 for 100 grams as compared to ÃâÃ £10 for 100 kilograms for its conventional counterpart (Malone, 2008). Small-scale farmers and Third World countries are unable to afford the cost of these GM seeds, but remain dependent upon them due to dire circumstances or termed conditions. This inevitably widens the gap between the privileged and the marginalised. As elucidated by Andrews (2009), GM seeds have skyrocketed and increased sharply throughout subsequent years. Farmers and Third World countries purchasing Monsantos Roundup Ready 2 Soybeans, a GM crop engineered by a leading agri-biotechnological company specialised in the manufacture of GM crops, in 2010 are required to pay an additional 42% more than the price they disbursed for in 2009. However, these countries and farmers are tied down by a contract in which they are required to patron Monsanto for specified number of years, rendering themselves incapable of any other option other than being indebted to the company. This is merely one of the examples in which the elevated prices of GM seeds prove to be detrimental to farmers and Third World Countries. 4.2 Abuse of Cost by Agri-biotechnological Companies Agri-biotechnological conglomerates might also exploit the cost to produce GM seeds. In an effort to enhance sales and profits, agrochemical industries have developed a technique referred to as the terminator technology to prevent farmers cultivating particular GM crop to save and re-plant harvested seeds. The terminator technology designates crops that have been genetically manipulated to yield sterile seeds upon harvest. This will result in farmers and Third World countries being compelled to procure seeds from those companies often at an inflated price. To further fortify this argument, it has been reported that Monsanto has incorporated Delta Pine Land, the worlds prime cotton seed company possessing three US patents on terminator technology, into its midst. These sterile genetically altered seeds would be able to secure a much greater monopoly than patents by making it unfeasible for farmers to re-use harvested seeds from their GM crops. This compels force dependence upon external sources for seeds by small farmers as well as Third World countries that are financially challenged. Hence, agri-biotech companies stand a chance to garner huge profits from the fragile fiscal instability such parties endeavour from. Beneficial to Farmers Advocates of GM crops persistently insist that even with the high costs required for growing GM crops, farmers remain as the ones reaping the benefits eventually. They are assured that GM crops are able to incur massive yields and produce, despite their initial costs for seeds. The profit gained at the end of the day would be more than sufficient to reimburse the cost of GM seeds at the start. On the contrary, this allegation is falsely based. GM crops have proven time and time again to be damaging to farmers. As is the case in India, thousands and thousands of Indian farmers are resorting to suicide after planting GM crops (Malone, 2008). They were promised with harvests previously unheard of and riches as well as incomes undreamt of by cultivating GM crops. Enticed by the assurance of future prosperity, these farmers then borrowed money in order to purchase the seeds needed. However, when harvests failed attained what has been promised, these farmers are left with escalating debts , and no incomes. Consequently, to escape from reality and anguish, they remedied their predicament through suicide. Hence, it can explicated again that GM crops are in fact, disadvantages to man. 5.0 Recommendations To address this issue, first of all, governments worldwide should play their respective parts. To curb and stem the growing ascendancy of GM crops and the marketing of GM foods, governments of countries should place a nationwide ban on GM food and crops. Agri-biotech companies should be imposed upon to discontinue manufacture and further development of GM food immediately. However, should this option be impractical, mandatory health testing of GM food must be employed. Before being released to the public as food products, GM food must be made to undergo multiple examinations to determine its various side-effects, if any, and to ascertain its safety for human consumption. Furthermore, compulsory food labelling of GM food must be necessitated. Agri-business industries should be made to mark their products of GM food in order for consumers to identify genetically modified foodstuff from unmodified ones. Additionally, the usage of chemical and toxic substances such as pesticides and herbicides that may result in harm to the environment should be regulated by the government. Stringent perimeters should be implied upon the amount of these pesticides used that may be employed throughout the growth and production of these GM foods. 6.0 Conclusion Succinctly, GM food should be forbidden for the greater good of mankind due to human health hazards, environmental risks, as well as exceedingly high costs for cultivation. GM food has not been proven to be entirely safe for consumption, as proven by multiple cases of dangers wrought through its intake as well as utilization. Therefore, in an attempt to restrain the increasing popularity of GM food, various parties must play their respective parts and take a stand in this issue. We, as humans capable of thought and logic, must progress with caution and prudence lest we bring destruction to ourselves and to the environment. Only by doing so can the future of mankind be guaranteed and the lives of our future generations spared from unnecessary dilemmas. 7.0 Bibliography Andrews, J., 2009, GM seed prices soar, Farmers Weekly Interactive, Reed Business Information Ltd., viewed 2 March 2010, http://www.fwi.co.uk/Articles/2009/12/07/119087/GM-seed-prices-soar.htm> banterminator.org, n.d., Introduction to Terminator Technology, Ban Terminator, viewed 2 March 2010, http://www.banterminator.org/The-Issues/Introduction> Chow, S., 2009, Genetically Modified Food Allergenicity and Safety Assessment, Centre for Food Safety, viewed on 2 March 2010, http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/multimedia/multimedia_pub/multimedia_pub_fsf_36_02.html> Cummins, R., 1999, Hazards of Genetically Engineered Foods and Crops: Why We Need A Global Moratium, In Motion Magazine, NPC Productions, viewed 2 March 2010, http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/geff4.html> Domingo, J. L., 2000, Health Risks of GM Foods Many Opinions but Few Data, Mindfully.org, viewed on 2 March 2010, http://www.mindfully.org/GE/Many-Opinions-Few-Data.htm> geneticallymodifiedfoods.co.uk, n.d., Are GM Foods Destroying Biodiversity?, Genetically Modified Foods, viewed 2 March 2010, http://www.geneticallymodifiedfoods.co.uk/are-gm-foods-destroying-biodiversity.html> gmwatch.org, 2001, Superweed story turns nasty, GMWatch, viewed 2 March 2010, http://www.gmwatch.org/latest-listing/1-news-items/4021-superweed-story-turns-nasty> Malone, A., 2008, The GM genocide: Thousands of Indian farmers are committing suicide after using genetically modified crops, Mail Online, World News, Associated Newspapers Ltd., viewed 2 March 2010, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1082559/The-GM-genocide-Thousands-Indian-farmers-committing-suicide-using-genetically-modified-crops.html> Steward, G., 2000, Genetically Engineered Superweeds Emerge in Canada, Organic Consumers Association, viewed 2 March 2010, http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge/superweed.cfm> Pusztai, A., 2001, Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?, actionbioscience.org, American Institute of Biological Sciences, viewed 2 March 2010, http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/pusztai.html> Sakko, K., 2002, The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods, actionbioscience.org, American Institute of Biological Sciences, viewed 2 March 2010, http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/sakko.html> Whitman, D. B., Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?, ProQuest, viewed 2 March 2010, http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php> 8.0 Appendix 1